Morphology is a science regarding the structures in various level of analysis in living object. Genetics is now considered as a finest end of a spectrum of the morphology. Dermatology has developed by precise description of the morphology of each skin lesion, which was also used as a name of a disease. The descriptive dermatology was then studied by light and electron microscopy and the names of the skin diseases have further been classified with consideration of the clinical course and prognosis. Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is one of the life-threatening disorders of autoimmune blistering skin diseases. The mechanism of blister formation was not clear until the subcellular location of the target epitope of the autoantibodies was elucidated. We have shown that two different autoantibodies, anti-collagen XVII and anti-BP230 antibodies attack different area of the hemidesmosomes, a main adherent structure between epidermis and dermis. Autoantibody against collagen XVII have its epitope on the extracellular domain, whereas the autoantibody against BP230 bind only to the intracellular domain of hemidesmosomes. Therefore, anti-collagen XVII antibody is important to initiate the inflammation at the basement membrane zone. In epidermolysis bullosa, genetic blistering skin diseases, gene mutation in one of every hemidesmosomal proteins causes skin fragility resulting in blister formation. The location of the responsible molecules, the depth of blister and the severity of the diseases, are closely related to each other, and the observation of the ultrastructure is the clue to give a correct diagnosis. Thus macroscopy–microscopy–genomics should be comprehensively analyzed and interpreted. In the field of cosmetology, so-called functional cosmetics developing for improvement of external appearance should be evaluated not only with macroscopy and biochemistry but also with microscopic morphology and genomics.
Although everyone knows the social usefulness of cosmetics, it causes various skin disorders when consumers use incorrect. Dermatologists should choose not only the treatment of dermatitis, but also they should investigate to use patch testing about their cosmetics, and should suggest to their patients which cosmetics is useful for their weak skin to keep the quality of daily life. So the physician should actively do patch testing to pursue the cause component of cosmetics, which requires cooperation with the company. In order to maintain the safety of cosmetics, I believe that it is necessary to have a place where doctors and chemists cooperate to examine them to establish a proper cosmetic component test.
The barrier of tight junction (TJ) covers the surfaces of the body and organs to keep tissue homeostasis. There exists only one single layer of TJ in the epidermis, a keratinized stratified epithelium, where maintaining TJ barrier homeostasis is crucial for proper formation of stratum corneum. The mechanism by which keratinocytes continuously turn over without compromising the TJ barrier was unknown. We visualized the three-dimensional organization of epidermal TJ by whole-mount staining of mouse ear skin for ZO-1 and found that double-edged TJ polygons were scattered in a single-layered TJ honeycomb. In vivo live imaging of Venus-fused ZO-1 transgenic mice demonstrated that a new TJ polygon is appeared sporadically at the basal side of each TJ-bearing cell, resulting to form double-edged polygons. Subsequently the apical-side TJ polygon disappears, thereby expelling the cell from the inside to the outside TJ barrier. Permeation assay using exfoliative toxin that digests Dsg1 revealed that Dsg1 molecules enclosed by the basal-side TJ polygon were escaped from the digestion, confirming the occlusive function of the basal-side TJ polygon. Isolated TJ-bearing cells have a polyhedral shape similar to flattened Kelvin’s tetrakaidecahedron previously observed in corneocytes, which is a flattened variation of the optimized shape to solve the space partitioning problem coined by Lord Kelvin in 1887. The flattened tetrakaidecahedron shape of cells enables the spatiotemporal orchestration of cell movement across the TJ with maintaining TJ barrier homeostasis and cell–cell spatial relationships. Our observations shed light on the hidden cellular architecture essential for developing epidermal barriers.
Introduction: We notice a big difference between children and adults. Nevi of the children tend to be flat and black, while those of adults are often elevated and hypopigmented. These differences could be explained by the depth of melanin distribution. The black or brown color is due to epidermal melanin, but blue-gray is because of dermal melanin. General Change of Nevus: The number of nevi would increase during puberty and decrease after the age of 40. The diameter of a nevus would increase up to 3 to 6 mm for the first few years and be stable after that, while the elevation might occur after the puberty or during pregnancy. Histopathological Classification of Nevus: Nevi are histopathologically classified into three categories, namely junctional, compound, and dermal, depending on the depth of melanocytic proliferation. Melanocytes in the junctional nevus mainly situated at the dermo-epidermal junction. Those in the compound type proliferate both at DEJ and the dermis. Those in the dermal nevus exclusively grow in the dermis. The junctional nevi remain to be flat during the life. Nevus on the Face: Facial nevi tend to be flat in the childhood, but become hemispherically elevated after the puberty. Nevus on the Trunk and Extremities: Nevi are flat and globular in the childhood and might transition to papillomatous type (Unna type). Nevi that appeared after the adolescence, are reticular on dermoscopy and remain to be flat and might disappear in the senescence. Nevus on the Palms and Soles: Nevi typically shows parallel furrow pattern on dermoscopy. They become hypopigmented in the senescence. Dynamic Change of Nevus (Spitz Nevus): The spitz nevus could change in the short period. It might be noted globular, followed by starburst, and then become reticular or homogeneous. It even might disappear in a few years.
The structure of the human face, such as the figure of the face, eye, nose, ear, lips in morphological and anthropological points of view. Also, face is most important to communication to each other in human society. In this paper, the construction of the each structure in face and cause of expression of muscle and aging change in human face.
This research tried to find out what kinds of factors there are when women’s college students evaluated a beautiful face. We supposed that an image of a face was greatly influenced by the details of the face, for instance, the shape of eyes, nose, and mouth, the size of cheekbones and the outline of the face. In 2009, Mr. Kang Lee et al. in University of Toronto of Canada announced the beauty’s “golden ratio” for a white woman. The ratio showed that the length between eyes and mouth was 36% of the distance from hairline to jaw, and the width between left and right pupil was 46% of the distance from left to right ear. On the other hand, Naemura and Harashima laboratory in University of Tokyo created a programing tool of an average face (1999.2 published). Mr. Harashima et al. showed that if the faces in a certain specific group were averaged the individual faces were denied and the feature of the group’s faces appeared. Then, we made the average faces for women’s beautiful faces, ugly faces and men’s handsome faces using Harashima’s programing tool. About 200 young women’s college students evaluated images of the average faces in order to carry out following the researches. 1) What are the features of the women’s beautiful faces evaluated by women’s college students? We showed a boundary between a beautiful face and an ugly face and the main features for the women’s beautiful face. 2) What are the features of the men’s good looks (“IKEMEN”) evaluated by women’s college students? We found out some factors of the men’s good looks using the SD method and factor analysis and we showed that those factors varied at different periods. Furthermore, we showed the feature of the latest men’s good looks.
Cosmetics are used to help the skin’s native function work normally with the aim of keeping and recovering healthy, beautiful skin and hair. Cosmetics have a variety of roles; their basic purposes include washing, wiping clean, and anti-dryness, anti-ultraviolet, antioxidation and stimulation functions. The purpose of bodily cleansing is to remove dirt on skin and hair and keep a body hygienic. Cosmetics can be classified in various ways, such as by their purpose and form, and body cleansing agents can be categorized by the body parts to which they are applied, such as cleansing agents for skin, the body, and hair. Skin cleansing agents, which are used to wash facial skin, remove metabolites produced by physiological actions of the skin, such as sebum, stratum corneum scales, oxidative degradation agents of sebum, sweat residue, dirt in the air, microorganisms, and makeup residue from the skin’s surface. Like skin cleansing agents, body cleansing agents are used to wash a large region of the body. Hair cleansing agents remove dirt on the scalp and hair and keep them clean. Although the kinds of dirt on the scalp and hair are similar to those on the skin, residues of hair care agents are also dirt to be removed. What is needed in common for these cleansing agents includes detergency, low stimulative effect on the skin, and foaming property, and these attributes mainly depend on the properties of surfactants. The evolution of cleansing agents is due largely to the evolution of surfactants. Looking back on the historical background of cleansing agents and the basis of cleansing, this article describes the kinds and ingredients of cleansing agents and the effects of cleansing agents by classifying the agents by the body parts they wash and focusing on surfactants.
The stratum corneum (SC) is the outermost layer of the skin and plays important roles in sustaining physiological activities. One of the roles of the SC is in the maintenance of skin moisture. The decrease in water content in the SC, which is a condition called dry skin, leads to a mildly rough skin and desquamation. Natural moisturizing factor (NMF) and intercellular lipids are essential for skin moisturization. NMF, which is composed of amino acids, pyrrolidone carboxylic acid, lactic acid, urea, and mineral ions, can hold water molecules in the SC. Intercellular lipids consisting of ceramides, cholesterol, cholesterol esters, and free fatty acids can prevent the evaporation of water molecules from the body, which is a barrier function. Moisturizers are broadly categorized into two types, humectants and emollients. Humectants such as amino acids, polyols, hyaluronan, and its derivatives moisturize the SC similarly to NMF. Emollients such as ceramides and oils are effective for improving the barrier function. Moisturizing products contain these moisturizers in various formulations. The moisturizing effect of products differs depending on the type of formulation. An adequate amount of a moisturizer in a product is important for providing both the moisturizing effect and the good texture of use, which affects continued use, because a large moisturizer amount impairs the texture of use.