Photoaging and intrinsic aging of the skin results from collagen degradation in the dermis by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), but photoaging differs from intrinsic aging due to the obvious emergence of skin wrinkles. It could be thought that photoaging is increased by intrinsic aging because its signs are expressed suddenly in the dermis of advanced intrinsically aged skin. In this study, we constructed a 3D photoaged model of the dermis using collagen-embedded senescent fibroblasts and analyzed collagen degradation and plasmin activity, because we had found that plasmin derived from fibroblasts activates MMP-1. Senescent fibroblasts had increased levels of plasmin activity in a non-irradiated 3D model and had increased degradation of collagen following exposure of the 3D model to ultraviolet (UV)-A radiation. Moreover, it was found that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) increased plasmin levels in normal fibroblasts and the increase of plasmin in senescent fibroblasts was reduced by treatment with the PGE2 inhibitor NS398. Treatment with tranexamic acid, plasmin or NS398 reduced collagen degradation in the 3D photoaged model. These results suggest that the increased level of plasmin in the 3D senescent fibroblast model depends on the expression of PGE2. Our study suggests that intrinsic aging increases photoaging in a plasmin- and PGE2-dependent manner and that tranexamic acid prevents photoaging especially in aged dermis.
We investigated the safety and usefulness of transparent solid soaps in parallel with ongoing treatment in patients with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis and seborrheic dermatitis with symptoms on the face. The soap is designed to be low in stimulation to the skin. Although there were no severe adverse effects, a minor one was noted related to the soap. One of the subjects discontinued the test product due to worsening of itching and eczema. After using the soap for four weeks, a significant improvement in the symptoms of drying and lichenification was observed. The visual analog scale score related to the skin condition also significantly improved, compared to that during the start of the study. In the questionnaire-based test response, approximately 90% of the subjects liked the feeling of using the soap. Overall, this study indicated that the investigated solid soap was safe and did not hamper the ongoing treatment.
With the progressive aging of society, anti-aging cosmetics with high efficacy are strongly demanded. Since wrinkles in particular are well known to influence an aged appearance, cosmetic companies have made huge efforts at developing anti-wrinkle products. However, there were no standardized, objective methods for evaluating wrinkles. To establish a method for evaluating wrinkles, the Japanese Cosmetic Science Society organized a task force committee and published the “Guideline for evaluation of anti-wrinkle products” in 2006. We herein review an anti-wrinkle ingredient whose effect was examined using this guideline. In addition, a detailed explanation of the molecular mechanism to demonstrate an anti-wrinkle effect is also required by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare for all quasi-drug ingredients. We found that neutrophils, the most abundant white blood cells in mammals, localized constitutively in the skin around the outer corner of the eye, a site at which wrinkles are likely to form. Neutrophil elastase (NE), a serine protease secreted by neutrophils, has a broad substrate specificity, including collagen, elastin, and proteoglycans. Given the role of NE for digesting the extracellular matrix, NE inhibition appears to be a promising target for anti-wrinkle treatments. We found that the NE inhibitor NEI-L1 has a strong NE inhibitory effect and also improves wrinkles, suggesting that NE inhibitors will prove to be novel and effective anti-wrinkle treatments.
Non surgical cosmetic techniques for the face are developing considerably, as they deliver good results using simple, non invasive, and atraumatic procedures. As people age, various forms of facial skin pigmentations occur, mixture of melasma, seborrheic keratoses, senile lentigo and wrinkles are present. I refer to this condition as Aging Complex Pigmentation or ACP. Of course, it is important to diagnosis and treat each condition accordingly. I think the concept of combined therapy for wrinkles. A therapy combining botulinum toxin, filler injections and lasers. This non-surgical therapeutic strategy brings patient satisfaction through a global approach to facial aging.
Overviewing the span of human history reveals that humans have long seemed to think that beauty is worth sacrificing health. However, with changing times, beauty became coexistent with health, and then an extension of health: the position of beauty thus changed from “opposed to health” to “associated with health,” and “promoted by health.” Now, the contribution of cosmetics to health is in the spotlight with the spread of cosmetic therapy. This review introduces the new and reversed relations shared by beauty and health, and explains how “beauty leads us to health” from a psychological perspective.
Facial cosmetics are essential for female to make them young and personally attractive, and have developed thousands of years in human history. Mesenchymal stem cells are currently shown to be effective to recover neuronal function of stroke patients with severe disability which are resistant to common treatment modalities, and now have been applied to the treatment of other intractable diseases, mostly related to aging, including skin rejuvenation. After brief introduction of mechanisms of skin aging focusing on photo-aging of sun-exposed skin, a possible application of regenerative medicine to the recovery from age-related damaged skin is discussed. Application of autologous skin-derived cultured fibroblasts and fat tissue-derived cells, including of extracellular vesicles originated from mesenchymal stem cells to aged human skin is introduced. The most important point to be solved scientifically which is thought to deprive of efficacy of cell therapy in cosmetic medicine, is how effectively to confine injected cells within the area for a few weeks and a month to exert them to produce new and young extra-cellular matrixes, such as collagen, proteoglycans and elastic fibers to recover youth in aged-skin. Further, a promising function of extracellular vesicles, particularly exosome, on skin rejuvenation will be introduced based on recent scientific reports published. Innovative cosmetics are expected to support and enhance the efficacy of stem cell and stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles-induced rejuvenation of aged and photo-aging skin.
Skin problems caused by cosmetics include not only irritant and allergic contact dermatitis, but also leukoderma caused by application of active brightening materials and immediate type wheat allergy due to hydrolyzed wheat protein. These skin problems have characteristic clinical symptoms and causative components and require specific testing methods. This article describes the skin problems caused by cosmetics for each site where symptoms are induced. On the scalp and face, allergic contact dermatitis is induced by ingredients present in cosmetics and daily hygiene products and hair coloring agents, especially preservatives such as isothiazolinones. Allergic contact dermatitis on the face also occurs due to chemicals used in eyelash extensions and components in lipstick. In Japan, the number of cases of leukoderma caused by ingredients contained in whitening cosmetics has rapidly increased and has become a social problem. Skin problems caused by cosmetics involve not only delayed allergic reactions but also immediate type reactions. After sensitization of the skin to the protein component contained in cosmetics, ingestion of foods containing the protein induces immediate type allergy. We have already experienced about the case of anaphylactic shock induced in immediate type allergy by hydrolyzed wheat protein or cochineal. The most useful test for identifying allergic contact dermatitis is the patch test. Repeated open application test (ROAT) using the cosmetic product is also a useful skin test. Additionally, the skin prick test is performed for immediate allergy. The Skin Safety Case Information Network (SSCI-Net) was established to quickly collect cases of contact dermatitis caused by cosmetics and daily use products, and to share the information with organizations such as cosmetic companies, relevant government agencies, and academia. It is hoped that skin troubles caused by cosmetics will be minimized through the efforts of the SSCI-Net.