There are various types of side effects caused by cosmetics; mostly they are believed to be not serious. Further, there are not a few cases at present that it is difficult to identify which ingredients in cosmetic products caused; even it was certainly caused by cosmetics which had been used. Table 1 shows not only the actual cases which were implemented some measures by MHLW (Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan) under the jurisdiction of Pharmaceutical Affairs Law or JCIA (Japan Cosmetic Industry Association) as a representative of cosmetic industries, taking into account the cases must be caused by cosmetics (including quasi-drugs such as medicated cosmetics), but also covers the background and history of cosmetics regulation under the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law in considering the safety of cosmetics.
In this article, simple consideration is done on Melanosis Faciei Feminea which has developed social problem that health damage is caused by cosmetics. The process in pigeonholing a part of this case is investigated from an ethologic perspective. Furthermore, a lawsuit on melanosis and simple description on Berlocq Dermatitis are mentioned.
For those who deal with cosmetics, it is recommended to know the normal structure and function of the skin to ensure safe and effective use of cosmetics and cosmetological treatments. The skin is not just a membrane that separates the human body from the outside but has various functions for maintaining homeostasis of the human body. In this paper, we have outlined the normal structure of the skin, touching on the pathological structures related to cosmetology.
The skin consists of three layers: epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous fat. The epidermis contains four layers: horny layer, granular layer, spinous layer, and basal layer. The horny layer plays a major role of barrier function at the forefront. When the stratum corneum is deficient in intercellular lipids, horny cells become compact and their water retention function is reduced, resulting in “asteatotic eczema,” which is a very common pruritic skin lesion in elderly. With aging, elastic fibers are denatured by long-term exposure to ultraviolet rays, and cause solar elastosis resulting in deep wrinkles. As skin appendages of the dermis, there are hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and sweat glands, which are sites of androgenic alopecia, acne, hyperhidrosis, and osmidrosis, respectively, and exhibit morphological and functional changes. All pathological conditions treated cosmetologically are closely associated with changes in skin structure and function.
The aim of this lecture series is to provide basic knowledge on skin troubles induced by cosmetics, as well as usefulness of cosmetics on skin disorders. Articles of this series, described by expertized dermatologists and planned for three years, will include various aspects of skin troubles of cosmetics and use of cosmetics by subjects with troubled skin. I hope that this lecture series will be helpful, not only for cosmetic scientists, but also for clinical dermatologists.
Background: Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) regulates extracellular matrix (ECM) production, interaction of cells with ECM and growth factor-dependent cell signaling. Here we examined SPARC’s effects on production and pericellular organization of type I collagen and hyaluronan (HA) in normal human dermal fibroblasts.
Methods: Production of procollagen I and HA, and gene expression were analyzed by ELISA and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. The pericellular deposition of mature collagen I and HA was examined by immunocytochemistry.
Results: SPARC enhanced production of procollagen I and HA in fibroblasts by up-regulating mRNA expression of COL1A1 (collagen α-1(I)) and HAS (HA synthase) 2/3, respectively. SPARC also increased the deposition of mature collagen fibrils on the cell surface of fibroblasts, accompanying the increased mRNA expression of procollagen C-proteinase (BMP1) and N-proteinase (ADAMTS2). The pericellular deposition of newly produced HA was also enhanced on the cell surface of SPARC-treated fibroblasts. Furthermore, SPARC up-regulated TGF-β1 production in fibroblasts, and SPARC-induced procollagen I and HA production was abolished by blockade of TGF-β/Smad2/3 signaling.
Conclusion: SPARC simultaneously up-regulates production of procollagen I and HA in fibroblasts by up-regulating Smad2/3-dependent TGF-β signaling, and also promotes the pericellular organization of mature collagen I fibrils and HA.
It is important for us to spend our daily lives comfortably and lively. To that end, cosmetic behavior in daily life has the power to modestly enrich and revitalize the mind as well as the skin. It is not only because it has a functional value to the skin, but also because it has an emotional or affective value that resonates the mind through the skin. Grounded in this belief, we have been studying the effects of cosmetics on the mind and the body for about 40 years. By demonstrating and quantifying these effects in a scientific manner, our aim is to lead development of ever better cosmetics and maximize the satisfaction of the user. This paper summarizes research findings on how skin care, makeup, and fragrance affect the mind and body through tactile, visual, and olfactory sensations by means of psychophysiological and affective engineering measurement techniques.
In sensitive skin such as atopic dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis and rosacea, it is necessary to continue skin care on a daily basis, but it is also necessary to mask the disease with makeup. Looking at the yearly change in the number of annual outpatients in our department, it can be seen that the number of female patients in their 40s is increasing. I think that the number of medical examinations is increasing at her age when makeup is required. I think that the instruction of their face washing is most important for sensitive skin with reduced barrier function. Patients with seborrheic dermatitis may also have sensitive skin, so is easy to get irritant contact dermatitis due to her constitution. Patients with rosacea and rosacea-like dermatitis have almost same sensitive skin condition. Rosacea-like dermatitis is caused by topical ointments, so discontinuation of topical therapy is the most effective treatment. Internal diseases such as liver or kidney disorders and visceral cancer often impair the health of the skin. Even if you think that it is healthy skin, the skin may become fragile due to menopause, aging and changes over time, and skin damage due to makeup may occur. Participation in society is required even if you have a disease, but being able to do so also leads to a desire to live. Makeup should be useful as a means to hide aging and pathological conditions of mind and body because it makes it easier to participate in society. Specialists need to be able to identify sensitive skin and provide proper makeup instruction.
Methods for treating bruises, vitiligo, and scars are improving year by year, but they often take a long time to work and are not always effective. In those cases, the use of cover makeup can improve the patient’s QOL (quality of life). While cover makeup cannot treat the issue itself, it causes no discomfort and can boost users’ confidence with its high coverage. It can also be used whenever and wherever. Early versions of cover makeup had a thick, powdery finish, but advances in powder and emulsification technology have led to the development of foundations that can sustain a natural finish over a long time. Patients can easily apply cover makeup at home if they learn techniques from a professional beauty consultant. This paper briefly covers the history of cover makeup in Japan, the latest types and features of foundation, and techniques for different kinds of cases.
Skin problems caused by cosmetics include not only irritant and allergic contact dermatitis, but also leukoderma caused by application of active brightening materials and immediate type wheat allergy due to hydrolyzed wheat protein. These skin problems have characteristic clinical symptoms and causative components and require specific testing methods. This article describes the skin problems caused by cosmetics for each site where symptoms are induced. On the scalp and face, allergic contact dermatitis is induced by ingredients present in cosmetics and daily hygiene products and hair coloring agents, especially preservatives such as isothiazolinones. Allergic contact dermatitis on the face also occurs due to chemicals used in eyelash extensions and components in lipstick. In Japan, the number of cases of leukoderma caused by ingredients contained in whitening cosmetics has rapidly increased and has become a social problem. Skin problems caused by cosmetics involve not only delayed allergic reactions but also immediate type reactions. After sensitization of the skin to the protein component contained in cosmetics, ingestion of foods containing the protein induces immediate type allergy. We have already experienced about the case of anaphylactic shock induced in immediate type allergy by hydrolyzed wheat protein or cochineal. The most useful test for identifying allergic contact dermatitis is the patch test. Repeated open application test (ROAT) using the cosmetic product is also a useful skin test. Additionally, the skin prick test is performed for immediate allergy. The Skin Safety Case Information Network (SSCI-Net) was established to quickly collect cases of contact dermatitis caused by cosmetics and daily use products, and to share the information with organizations such as cosmetic companies, relevant government agencies, and academia. It is hoped that skin troubles caused by cosmetics will be minimized through the efforts of the SSCI-Net.
Life expectancy has increased significantly. It was 50.06 and 53.96 years in 1947, and 79.64 and 86.39 years in 2010 for male and female respectively. Birth rate per 1,000 population showed a decrease from 39.3 in 1945 to 7.6 in 2017. An aging society is progressing rapidly in Japan. Baby boomers have become older than 65, and their health anxiety, prevention of skin aging and skin diseases, has become major matter for health care world.
One of the biggest factors of skin-aging is ultraviolet rays. Since it is not necessarily aging due to biological time, the word “photoaging” is established. Photoaging include not only cosmetic problems like wrinkles and freckles, but also skin cancers like actinic keratosis. To prevent photo-aging, sunscreen is the most convenient and reliable method. In addition to the photo-aging skin condition and skin diseases, there are many skin diseases which are common in elderly people or are associated with internal diseases. For bedridden old people, bedsore is the largest problem.
Cosmetics can prevent many skin diseases and help treatments, although they cannot treat by themselves. They have many possibilities of cosmetics in elderly society.
The skin concentration of topically applied cosmetic active ingredients is very important for evaluating cosmetics. However, a large variation is often observed in finite dose experiments due to the evaporation of volatile components in the formulation and difficulties for applying formulation uniformly. In addition, steady-state skin concentration could not be attained even after several hours of application. In this verification report, we conducted in vitro skin permeation experiment with an infinite dose to confirm whether formulation with the highest skin permeation would also show the highest skin concentration. Three formulations, lotion, milk, and cream, and the mixture of these formulations containing isopropyl methyl phenol (IPMP) as a model ingredient were applied to excised human skin in eight research facilities. The present experiment was conducted with receptor solution containing 1.0% of Brij 98 in order to increase solubility of IPMP in the receptor fluid without changing skin integrity. The obtained results were consistent among the facilities in the following order of skin permeation (lotion>milk>cream≅the mixture) and corresponded with that of the skin concentration. This result showed that evaluation of topical formulations with in vitro skin permeation experiment with an infinite dose could identify the formulation which exhibited the highest steady-state skin concentration of cosmetic active ingredients. In addition, experiment with mixture formulation might reveal changes in skin permeability associated with changes in thermodynamic activity of IPMP after co-application of several formulations on the skin.
The skin concentration of topically applied cosmetic active ingredients is very important for evaluating cosmetics. However, a large variation is often observed in finite dose experiments due to the evaporation of volatile components in the formulation and difficulty in applying the formulations uniformly. In addition, steady-state skin concentration could not be attained even after several hours of application. In our previous report, three formulations, lotion, milk, and cream, and the mixture of these formulations containing isopropyl methyl phenol (IPMP) as a model ingredient were applied to excised human skin with infinite dose (ten to one hundred higher application dose against actual amount of application of personal cosmetic products) in eight research facilities. As the result, the formulation with the highest skin permeation also showed the highest skin concentration. In the present study, the same experiment with the previous report was conducted using a hydrophilic compound, caffeine (CAF). The skin permeation of CAF increased with a decrease in skin electrical resistivity, whereas no relationship was observed in IPMP. Since a large variation of skin permeation of CAF was observed in low skin resistance (<10 kΩcm2), the skin having larger than 10 kΩcm2 skin resistance was used in three facilities in the additional test. The obtained results were consistent among the facilities in the following order of skin permeation (lotion>milk) and corresponded with that of the skin concentration. These results suggest that skin resistance should be considered when a hydrophilic compound is applied in in vitro skin permeation test. In addition, the present and the previous results show that topical formulations with in vitro skin permeation experiment with an infinite dose could identify the formulation which exhibited the highest steady-state skin concentration of cosmetic active ingredients.
Cosmetic companies assure their cosmetic products based on national regulations and their own internal rules. The safety of cosmetic products consists of raw material safety and practical usage safety. Regarding the safety assessment of raw materials, local and systemic toxicological endpoints are based on market histories and existing data. When existing information is insufficient, safety tests have to be conducted. Many companies have abolished animal testing on cosmetics and raw materials. However, there are significant limitations in non-animal testing alternatives currently. After the safety of a raw material is assured, its safety in product form must also be assessed. When considering safety concerns regarding practical usage, all the influencing factors, such as age, sex, and sensitivity of the target population, have to be taken into account. Likewise, the period, frequency, and topical area of use must be taken into consideration. If the products show any safety concerns, product form tests should be conducted to further ensure their safety. When companies launch their products following safety assurance procedures, they should conduct post market surveys to monitor for any adverse events. If any such events occur, the company should evaluate the contents and take suitable actions. Further to this, in 2014, the Japanese government imposed the rule on companies that they must report each case of any severe adverse events related to cosmetic use. The safety of cosmetics has been well maintained by both the regulatory system and cosmetic company care and due diligence. However, more and more innovative products are being developed, with some causing severe and broad adverse events. Safety assessors should train themselves to keep their skills and knowledge up to date and companies should enhance their survey system to catch safety problems earlier.
It is well known that fragrances influence our senses. Fragrances used in cosmetic products are no exception. Not only masking the odor of the product base, they give various impressions such as freshness, comfortableness and newness, and provide higher added value to products. In this report, we describe the fragrance development with a focus on raw materials, functional materials, and creation by perfumers. In addition, it is necessary to understand the regulations and environment issues related to fragrances and cosmetics.
Hair care products include shampoo, conditioner, treatment, hairstyling product, perm agent, coloring agent, and hair growing agent. The products other than shampoo and hair growing agent are used for scalp hair shaft, which is a dead part. Therefore, unlike skin care products, it is characteristic for hair care products that some of them act with a chemical reaction, like permanent wave lotions and oxidation hair dyes. In this article, I explain hair care products except in-bath products (shampoo, conditioner, and treatment) with a focus on their functions, product types, purposes, ingredients, and usages. Hairstyling can be performed by rearranging hydrogen bonds in hair. In other cases, hairstyles are made by fixing hair fibers with fixative ingredients. Hairstyling products assisting hairstyling or fixing hairstyles include hair sprays, hair water or lotions, hair foams, hair creams or milks, gels, liquids, tonics, oils, waxes, etc. The characteristics of their forms and components are explained. Perm agent is intended to change hair shape permanently by cleavage and recombination of disulfide bonds in the hair. In addition to the perm agent of quasi-drug from the past, there has been extending recently curling agents of the cosmetic category, of which curling mechanism is based on the reduction and oxidation of disulfide bonds, same as quasi-drugs. As for hair coloring agent, there are also quasi-drugs and cosmetic products. In the quasi-drug category, there are oxidation hair dyes and bleaching agents. There are semi-permanent hair color and temporary hair color in cosmetic products. Their coloring mechanisms and including components are described. As for hair growing agents, many effective ingredients have been proposed in accordance with the mechanism of thinning hair. I explain briefly products in the categories of medicine and quasi-drug.
Makeup cosmetics have been used in ancient times for the purpose of religious acts or expression of user’s authorities. The meaning of makeup changes with the times, and nowadays it is mainly used for the expression of personal beauty and tidy appearance. The main function of the makeup products are visual effects such as hiding of skin troubles, modifying the skin color and texture, and making users look more attractive with color and brilliance. In addition, recent makeup products also offer protective function such as moisturization or UV protection. Furthermore, research about the psychological effects by using makeup products is also in progress such as gaining confidence, satisfaction and sociality. There are various makeup products with different application area, and their usage method and required finishing state differ depending on each product. Therefore, in order to use makeup products safely and effectively, it is important to understand the composition of each product and usage method including the package and the applicator. In this article, I explain the formulation composition and several essential raw materials of each makeup product, and outline the molding technology and usage.
Skin wrinkles are worldwide, major concern for beauty. Many studies report the mechanisms of wrinkle formation, including intrinsic and extrinsic aging-relating changes of skin structure/function. Since fine wrinkles, which are observed at epidermis, are known to be formed by dryness of skin, moisturizing is one of the best options for prevention/improvement of fine wrinkles. On the other hand, deeper wrinkles show structural alteration of dermis. The changes of quality and/or quantity of dermal extracellular matrix, such as collagen, elastic fiber and hyaluronic acid, are reported in aged skin. In this paper, we summarize how fine- and deep wrinkles are formed based on various studies, and introduce established treatments for anti-wrinkles.
In recent years, it is reported that UV light affect DNA damage, skin cancer and photo-aging such as age-spots and wrinkle. Along with the increasing awareness to protect the skin from UV light in these days, multi-functionalization is required to sunscreen not only for pool, sea and sports use, but also for daily use. Functions of sunscreen are needed to have high UV protection efficacy and less burden use feeling on the skin such as transparency after applying, moisturizing effect and comfortable feeling. In addition to that, it is reported that friction resistant function is important from the view point of actual consumer dairy life. This article reviews sunscreen formulations with high UVA protection efficacy and moisturizing of W/O technology by using plate like zinc oxide, and even protection film O/W technology by using α-gel capsule of UV absorbers. Furthermore, it also reviews UV protect evaluation method of sunscreen and sunscreen effects for photodermatosis, skin cancer and photo-aging such as age-spot, wrinkle and skin color evenness.
In Japan, there are values that prefer the state where the skin is white and has no spots or dullness. Therefore, spots and freckles are becoming one of the skin troubles for many consumers. The term “skin whitening” is used as a term referring to skin care for skin troubles such as spots and freckles. Products used for skin whitening purposes, so-called whitening products, generally refer to quasi-drugs containing skin whitening active ingredients. Various mechanisms of action for skin whitening have been elucidated so far, and various skin whitening active ingredients have been developed accordingly. In this article, the functional mechanism of skin whitening active ingredients blended in skin whitening quasi-drugs and the effects on human skin were outlined.
Cosmetics are used to help the skin’s native function work normally with the aim of keeping and recovering healthy, beautiful skin and hair. Cosmetics have a variety of roles; their basic purposes include washing, wiping clean, and anti-dryness, anti-ultraviolet, antioxidation and stimulation functions. The purpose of bodily cleansing is to remove dirt on skin and hair and keep a body hygienic. Cosmetics can be classified in various ways, such as by their purpose and form, and body cleansing agents can be categorized by the body parts to which they are applied, such as cleansing agents for skin, the body, and hair. Skin cleansing agents, which are used to wash facial skin, remove metabolites produced by physiological actions of the skin, such as sebum, stratum corneum scales, oxidative degradation agents of sebum, sweat residue, dirt in the air, microorganisms, and makeup residue from the skin’s surface. Like skin cleansing agents, body cleansing agents are used to wash a large region of the body. Hair cleansing agents remove dirt on the scalp and hair and keep them clean. Although the kinds of dirt on the scalp and hair are similar to those on the skin, residues of hair care agents are also dirt to be removed. What is needed in common for these cleansing agents includes detergency, low stimulative effect on the skin, and foaming property, and these attributes mainly depend on the properties of surfactants. The evolution of cleansing agents is due largely to the evolution of surfactants. Looking back on the historical background of cleansing agents and the basis of cleansing, this article describes the kinds and ingredients of cleansing agents and the effects of cleansing agents by classifying the agents by the body parts they wash and focusing on surfactants.
The stratum corneum (SC) is the outermost layer of the skin and plays important roles in sustaining physiological activities. One of the roles of the SC is in the maintenance of skin moisture. The decrease in water content in the SC, which is a condition called dry skin, leads to a mildly rough skin and desquamation. Natural moisturizing factor (NMF) and intercellular lipids are essential for skin moisturization. NMF, which is composed of amino acids, pyrrolidone carboxylic acid, lactic acid, urea, and mineral ions, can hold water molecules in the SC. Intercellular lipids consisting of ceramides, cholesterol, cholesterol esters, and free fatty acids can prevent the evaporation of water molecules from the body, which is a barrier function. Moisturizers are broadly categorized into two types, humectants and emollients. Humectants such as amino acids, polyols, hyaluronan, and its derivatives moisturize the SC similarly to NMF. Emollients such as ceramides and oils are effective for improving the barrier function. Moisturizing products contain these moisturizers in various formulations. The moisturizing effect of products differs depending on the type of formulation. An adequate amount of a moisturizer in a product is important for providing both the moisturizing effect and the good texture of use, which affects continued use, because a large moisturizer amount impairs the texture of use.