Since the protein fraction in body-fluid was analyzed exactly by Tiselius method in electrophoresis, the analysis of the serum or plasma protein in pathologic conditions have been reported by many investigators. On the other hand, many researches on correlations between erythrocyte sedimentation rate and the fractions of plasma proteins has been done. Among them, the most interesting point is that the correlation of the fractions is varied by the kind of the disease. The same tendency is observed in the accelerating and delaying factors for the erythrocyte sedimentation. The analysis of fractions and the measurements of erythrocyte sedimentation of 25 oral cancer patients were performed in order to determine the correlation between each fraction and erythrocyte sedimentation. These analysis and measurements were repeated 114 times. At first, the fluctuation of fractions in plasma proteins were observed and obtained the following results. 1) In the patients of oral cancer before treatment, decreasing of albumin and the increasing of α-globulin and fibrinogen in plasma protein were observed. 2) The plasma protein pattern kept abreast with the changes in clinical findings. The more did the clinical findings change, the more they increased remarkably, and especially there was a significance between the decrease of albumin and the increase of globulin. 3) After the treatment, the plasma protein pattern showed the variation by artificial stress like an operation. However, they were stabilized within 60 th or 70 th day after the treatment. In the cases showing the favorable prognosis, the plasma protein would gradually returned to the normal level, while, in the cases showing unfavorable prognosis, it would become unstabilized again, that is, the decreasing of albumin and the increasing of α- and γ-globulin and fibrinogen could be seen. Only β-globulin did not show so prominent variation through all phases of the disease.
The osseomucoid was treated with protease (Nagarse) and hyaluronidase (Sprase), and the change was investigated on the filter paper electrophoresis followed by the dyeing method with Amidoschwarz and toluidine blue and also by the periodic acid-Schiff reaction. Both of Nagarse and Sprase gave somewhat larger mobilities to the three fractions in the osseomucoid, i, e., chondroitin sulfuric acid, protein (or neutral glycoprotein) and a com-pound of the above two components. The spot, probably insoluble, remaining at the original point which is observed with the control sample (untreated with enzymes) disappears when treated with Nagarse, while with Sprase it lingers strongly and never be removed. Amidoschwarz positive spot is dyed weakly after the treatment with Nagarse but the toluidine blue positive spot is not so even after the treatment with hyaluronidase. The change on the typical figure of the spot supposed as chondroitin sulfuric acid is fairly affected by hyaluronidase. The periodic acid-Schiff reaction did not dye the fraction supposed as chondroitin sulfuric acid but colored the almost same part dyed with Amidoschwarz and its coloration decreased remarkably by Nagarse, but little effect was observed by hyaluronidase. Department of Oral Hygiene
A medium which detects H2S produced by bacteria was newly designed by Onisi and Tachibana, being consisted of agar 2%, peptone 2%, meat extract 1%, NaCl 0.2%, sodium thiosulf ate 0.008%, sodium sulfite 0.04%, lead acetate 0.3%, glucose 0.1%, adjusted at pH 6.8. Dental scrapping from 195 apparently healthy tooth surfaces, and from 112 cavities, and pathological exudates from 150 pyorrhea pockets were inoculated in the media in order to find incidence of H2S activity of these three different categories of specimens. The positive reaction was found at 86.7% of pyorrhea specimens, at 66, 9% of cavity deposits and at 60% of healthy scrappings. The differences between pyorrhea and the rest were estimated to be significant. The positive cultures were been plated on the same medium to identify the organisms corresponding to the H2S production there in, i.e., 29 Veillonella, 7 Escherichia, 4 Bacteria, 5 Neisseria, 6 aerobic Micrococci, 2 anaerobic Micrococci, 2 Kurthia, one Corynebacteria and one Diplococcus were resulted, but neither Fusobacteria nor Treponema which may possibly major H2S producers in the pyorrhea pocket. Veillonella, the majority of the genera showing positive reaction, Gram negative rods, the most intensive producers of H2S, Fusobacteria and Treponema would be summarized to be dominant genera of H2S production in the case of pyorrhea alveolaris. As the relation between pyorrhea and bacterial hydrogen sulfide, it is considered that the reducing action of the latter may affect the keratin layer of the gingival epithelium to create the S-S linkage in it.
The decalcifying process of the dental and osseo hard tissues was investigated in EDTA solution by the methods of ultraviolet absorption spectrum and fluoro-metry together with the determination of dissolved saccharide, and the following conclusions were obtained : I. Ultraviolet absorption of EDTA solution 1. The ultraviolet absorption spectrum of EDTA-Na salt solution considerably varies with the degree of dissociation of the solution. 2. It has been already reported that the ultraviolet absorption of EDTA-Ca salt solution shifts to the shorter wave-lengths than that of EDTA-Na salt solution, but little attention has been paid to the findings that -Ca salt solution gives a higher absorption than -Na salt solution at longer wave lengths than 255 mμ. 3. The absorption curves of the mixed solution containing EDTA-Na salt and -Ca salt at various proportions at pH 4.5 show an isosbestic point, which means that these solutions are the two-component system. 4. Considerable variations are observed with the absorption of EDTA-Ca salt solution as pH varies, though it likely keeps an almost stable structure at pH 5-10. II. Decalcifying process in EDTA solution observed with ultraviolet absorption 1. Decalcification of marble The change in absorption illustrates that EDTA-Na salt solution mainly changes into -Ca salt solution as the decalcification proceeds. In this case, a curve showing the change in absorption at 250 mμ under the decalcifying process well agrees with the result obtained from the determination of Ca by the titration method. 2. Decalcification of dentin and bone Differing from the above mentioned marble, dentin and bone give a steep increase of absorption at 270 mμ-300mμ at the beginning, this absorption then markedly decreases for a while and again gradually increases with a duration of the decalcification. It seem that such increase of absorption at the whole range of longer wave lengths than 270 mμ shows a simultaneous extraction of organic substances which gives absorption and also scattering at this range of wavelength. 3. Decalcification of enamel The steep increase of absorption observed with dentin and bone at the very beginning of the decalcification is not so obvious in this case, and the absorption shows an only gradual increase at the whole range. III. Fluoro-metry examined under the decalcification in EDTA solution Fluoro-substance is considerably extracted at the beginning of decalcification of dentin, but this fluoroescence becomes not observable for a while and then gradual dissolution of this substance seems to be proceeded again. This phenomenon is similar with the case of ultraviolet absorption. IV. Determination of saccharide in EDTA decalcifying solution of dentin This solution gives some reactions of saccharide. The determination of saccharide by the “Anthron reaction” has shown that saccharide dissolves out considerably at the very beginning of decalcification, which followed by a decrease and again increase as observed with the of ore-mentioned ultraviolet absorption and fluoro-metry.
Utilizing remarkable difference of electric resistance between enamel and dentin, the thickness of enamel at the fissure parts was presumably measured. It was studied whether the morphologic and pathologic conditions at the fissure parts of extracted or vital teeth were judged by this measurement. The following results were obtained; 1. The electric resistance of the teeth covered with enamel is rather high (4MΩ to ∞) . It becomes, however, lower and lower, with removing enamel from the tooth surfaces and is reduced in proportion to the thickness of enamel. When dentin is exposed, the resistance is keeping approximately constant value. 2. It is clear by the experiments on 109 extracted teeth that the electric resistance of teeth depends upon their morphologic and pathologic conditions. The highest value is showed at the normal fissures (G) and the value is decreased with the order of the deep fissures (F1), flask-typed fissures (F2), enamel caries (C1), the perfect tissues (F3) and carries reached to dentin (C2) . The electric resistance is varied by the thickness of enamel at the basis layer under fissures. 3. When the morphologic and pathologic conditions are divided, by covering states of enamel under fissures, into such 3 groups, as G and Fl group (I), F and Cl group (II) and F3 and C2 group (III), the mean value of electric resistances of each group are, 2874, 1842 and 334 KΩ respectively. The difference among them is significant. 4. The electric resistances are measured on 866 molars of 90 males and females, aged from 18 to 47 years. The average values of clinically healthy teeth, 132 incipient carious teeth (C1) and apparent carious teeth (C2) are, 1299, 276, and 63 KΩ respectively. There is a significant difference between the average value of healthy teeth and that of incipient carious teeth. 5. 666 molars of 71 people, aged from 19 to 44 years are observed for 2 to 3 years. Of these teeth, 148 teeth showed the electric resistance below 280 KΩ, and 518 teeth above 290 KΩ. The caries attack rate of the former is 45.9 per cent and that of the latter 8.3 per cent. 6. It is concluded that the value of electric resistance at fissures of molars can be apparently applied to the determination of morphologic and pathologic conditions at the fissure parts and that the caries attack rate can be judged by these value.
Study was made on the tooth germ in four autopsy cases, two male infants (12 days and 8 days of age) and two female infants (7 days and 5 days of age) . The jaundice began to appear from 3rd day after birth in three cases, and 4th day in the last case, respectively. The degree of jaundice of the skin, oral mucosa and conjunctiva was moderate in the first three cages and slight in the last case. Kernikterus was observed remarkably in first two cases, moderately in the third case and slightly in the last case. In three cases Rh incompatibility was demonstrated. Macroscopically, the enamel was greenish pigmented in various degrees and the pulp was stained more brown color. Microscopically, a yellowish brown pigmentation appeared distinctly in the neonatally formed enamel. However, dentin was faintly pigmented in yellow color. In the pulp bile pigment was found distinctly in the capillaries, and slight pigmentation was found diffusely in the remaining pulp tissue and enamel epithelium. There were no hypoplastic defect. It is an interesting finding that in these cases the pigmentation of the dentin was much less intensely than one of the enamel, although several investigators had reported that the pigmentation of the dentin severer than the enamel.
1) Water-soluble substances of the triturated equine and bovine dentins and bovine bone, when suspended in distilled water and N/100 Veronal buffer, are studied by the determinations of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and nitrogen. 2) The dissolution of magnesium ions of dentin considerably differs from that of bone i.e. the ratio of magnesium and calcium dissolved from dentin (Mg/Ca) is much greater than that of bone, and in the case of bone it keeps nearly constant throughout the experiment period, but in the case of dentin the ratio shows an increasing inclination. From these phenomenon it is suggested that dentin and bone hold magnesium ions in different manners respectively. 3) The ratio of water-soluble magnesium and calcium is much greater than that of the composition of magnesium and calcium in the both tissues. 4) The ratio of calcium and phosphorus dissolved from dentin (Ca/P) is fairly small (below 1.0) . It seems that other phosphate salts are more soluble than calcium phosphate, since the ratio of calcium and phosphorus in Ca3 (PO4) 2 gives 1.94 and in hydroxylapatite gives 2.15. But (Mg+Ca) /P gives nearly 2.0 when magnesium ions are also multiplied by the ratio of both molecular weights (40/24.3) . So it can be considered that the soluble magnesium ions are driven from some phosphate compounds such as tricalcium phosphate or hydroxylapatite in which calcium ions are replaced by magnesium ions. On the contrary, the ratio of calcium and phosphorus dissolved from bone is greater than 2.3, especially in N/100 Veronal buffer, and it seems that other calcium salts are dissolved more than calcium phosphate is. 5) According to the nitrogen determination, little difference is observed with the amount of dissolved organic compounds between dentin and bone.
1) Magnesium ions demineralized from triturated bovine hard tissues by M/200 EDTA solution are determined by “chelate ” titration method. 2) As the result of the determination by “chelate” titration method, bovine enamel, dentin and bone contain 35.0%, 25.6% and 23.6% of calcium and also 0.40%, 0.91% and 0.44% of magnesium respectively. 3) In the early period of the demineralization, the amount of magnesium ions dis-solved from dentin is largest followed by bone and that of enamel is smallest, and these amounts are correspond to the magnesium content of these tissues. 4) For enamel and bone, the ratio dissolved calcium and magnesium is paralleld with the ratio of their contents and for dentin, however, it is smaller than that of their contents in the very early stage of demineralization, but it becomes greater than the ratio of con-tents 15-20 minutes later. 5) These results are similar with authors' another report and also suggest that magnesium ions are held in different manners in dentin and bone.
141 cases of the opened infected root canals were divided into two groups at random: mycillin group and formocresol group. The root canals of both groups were enlarged and cleaned with Kerr's reamers, and immediately after that, mycillin paper points (contain 3000 unit of penicillin and 2 mg. of strepotmycin) or the paper points with formocresol (1: 1) were inserted into the root canals of the respective group. Then, the effects of these two medicaments were compared in respect of the times of treatment to get sterility of the root canal. The following results were obtained. 1. Only enlargement by reamers and cleaning by alcohol secured the negative culture in the 11 among 141 cases (7.8%) . 2. Average times of treatment to secure sterility of the canal was 1.75 for mycillin group and 2.13 for f ormocresol group. The difference between those times of treatment was not significant statistically. 3. The number of cases of which the treatment had been abandoned was 16 among 71 cases in mycillin group and 9 among 70 cases in formocresol group. The main reason of abandone of the treatment was acute periodontitis caused after the first application in the former group and the difficulty to get sterility in spite of many times of treatment in the latter. 4. After the application, Gram-positive cocci and bacilli, and Gram-negative bacilli could be observed in the root canals, however, Gram-negative cocci were very rare. Yeasts were observed only in the mycillin group. 5. Some formocresol group showed negative culture, though bacteria were seen at the stained specimens. This was considered that the dead bacteria by the medicaments still have had a tendency to be stained, and that they were visible just like living organisms. 6. It was concluded that for the sterilization of the infected root canals, formocresol had been superior to mycillin.
Measuring of the temperature on the various parts of the body have been applied to the diseases in aid of a diagnostic method. Although there are many descriptions about local temperature of the physiological and pathological conditions in the mouth, its adjacent areas, an experimental study was given to the gingival pockets are no descriptive work, and found several views in them.
When 2 % methylen blue solution was applied on the tooth surface which is apparently well cleaned, it was distinctly found the existence of mucinous deposit, the dirtiness by which is the greatest on the molar, and is the least on the labial surface of the anterior tooth and the premolar.
The authors made precise macroscopic and stereoscopic examinations on the apparently firm and smooth surface of the labial side of a tooth crown, and recognized the existence of many enamel cracks. The enamel cracks are closely connected with occlusion and they are divided into two main classes.