関東東山病害虫研究会報
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2012 巻 , 59 号
選択された号の論文の43件中1~43を表示しています
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特別講演
  • 夏秋 知英
    2012 巻 (2012) 59 号 p. 1-4
    公開日: 2013/12/27
    ジャーナル フリー
    Cross protection is a phenomenon whereby prior infection with one virus (the primary virus) prevents or interferes with subsequent infection by another isolate of the same virus or a closely related virus (the secondary virus), suggesting that cross protection using attenuated viruses appears to offer a promising strategy for biological control of plants viral diseases. A few attenuated viruses have been commercially used as a “vaccine” in Japan. Because cross protection is effective in general, it is necessary to increase good attenuated strains against many severe viruses. To study the underlying molecular mechanism, it is essential to know how the attenuated isolate differs in genome structure from the original virulent isolate.
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虫害の部
  • 松下 みどり
    2012 巻 (2012) 59 号 p. 89-90
    公開日: 2013/12/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    A forecasting method for the emergence of the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck), by using temperature data from the AMeDAS (Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System), was examined in Chiba Prefecture.
    The observation of emergence rate of the golden apple snail was carried out at 70 fixed investigation points over the prefecture from 2002 to 2011. The rate of the number of points where more than one individual of the golden apple snail had been observed showed a significant positive correlation (r=0.79, P<0.01)with mean temperature (from December to February). The regression formula, y=2.9557x-10.89 (y: the rate of emergence, x: mean winter temperature), is applicable to forecasting for emergence of the golden apple snail in late May or early June.
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  • 長坂 幸吉, 佐藤 文生, 吉田 睦浩, 後藤 千枝
    2012 巻 (2012) 59 号 p. 91-97
    公開日: 2013/12/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    カブラヤガ幼虫の圃場への侵入を防ぐための障壁に必要な地上部の高さと土中の深さについて,20℃,16L8Dの室内条件で調査した。体長が異なる (緊縮状態で1.5㎝~3.8㎝) カブラヤガ幼虫を用いて,高さ3㎝,4㎝,5㎝の障壁の通過割合を調べたところ,体長が長いほど高い障壁を越えることができた。終齢初期で体長が約3㎝ (緊縮状態で2.5~3.4㎝) の幼虫の通過を阻止するための障壁の長さは,垂直面では5㎝,45°斜面では7㎝の長さが必要であった。また,終齢初期の幼虫の地中からの侵入を1日間防ぐためには,10㎝程度の深さの障壁が必要であり,この深さでも7日間あれば通過できる個体が17%みられた。終齢初期の幼虫は,餌のない状態でも一定期間で蛹にまで成長することができたが,餌がある場合に比べ生存率と蛹重が低下した。これらの結果から,圃場において農業用フィルムの再利用を想定した簡易な障壁による幼虫侵入阻止法を考察した。
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  • 小澤 朗人
    2012 巻 (2012) 59 号 p. 99-101
    公開日: 2013/12/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    Optimum timing of insecticide application for the white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni), that had infested tea trees was estimated using a simulation method. Fenpyroximate-buprofezin mixture was used as the test insecticide. Mortalities of the larvae (age, 1 to 8 days) of the scale were investigated, after using the insecticide, in a laboratory. In addition, residual activities of the insecticide that lasted up to 4 days after the spraying on the hatched larvae of the scale were investigated in a field and the laboratory. On the basis of these experimental data, and assuming that hatchability is represented as a sigmoid curve, the effects of the timing of the insecticide application on larval mortality in tea fields were simulated. The simulation results showed that larval mortality was the highest at a hatchability of 73.1% and that the optimum application period of the insecticide was 3 days.
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  • 深尾 聡, 大井田 寛, 塚本 崇志
    2012 巻 (2012) 59 号 p. 103-109
    公開日: 2013/12/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    Geocoris varius is a native, polyphagous insect predator that attacks many greenhouse pests such as thrips, spider mites and aphids. So far, their pest-control ability was investigated by releasing G. varius nymphs on crops infested with single species of the pests. In this study, we investigated the multiple control efficiency of G. varius on multiple pest species, by releasing their nymphs on watermelon or strawberry plants infested with both thrips and spider mites, or aphids in addition to the two pest groups. In the watermelon fields where thrips, spider mites and aphids occurred simultaneously, G. varius controlled both thrips and spider mites, but not aphids. In the strawberry field where thrips and spider mites occurred simultaneously, G. varius controlled thrips only. Thus, we recommend the use of phytoseiid predatory mites together with G. varius to control spider mites as well as thrips in strawberry fields.
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