Summary: Mammography after breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy is an important tool for followup. Early diagnosis of local recurrence enables prompt treatment decisions, which may affect patient prognosis. For complicated post-treatment changes, radiologists sometimes have difficulties in interpreting follow-up mammography. Fat necrosis, dystrophic calcifications, suture calcification features, breast edema, seroma and distorted breast are benign changes related to treatment. These findings may mimic or hide tumor recurrence making it difficult to diagnose recurrences or prevent inappropriate biopsies. Recurrent tumors in follow-up mammography show several typical findings such as increasing asymmetric density, enlarging mass, reappearance of breast edema, and micro-calcifications. The purpose of this pictorial review is to demonstrate and discuss mammographic findings of recurrent tumors and important post-treatment changes that may mimic benign or malignant lesions, also using breast ultrasound images or breast magnetic resonance images. Recognizing post-treatment changes may help radiologists to more effectively identify candidates for suspected local recurrences.
Summary: Introduction: Studies evaluating the age-related alteration of human appendix have been reported. Although the appendix shows a degeneration of lymphoid tissues with aging, the mechanism of action remains unclear.
Material and Methods: Surgically resected appendix tissues from patients with colon cancer, intestinal malrotation and ulcerative colitis (UC) were utilized for histological and flow cytometric analysis.
Results: Histological analysis showed that aging may induce steatotic changes in the appendix. However, there was no clear association between appendiceal fibrosis and aging. Lymphoid follicles in the appendix may start to develop before 5 days of age, gradually mature, and eventually disappear with aging. Flow cytometric analysis clearly identified a lymphocyte population in the appendix at 5 days, 45 and 75 years of age, and lymphoid follicles were also confirmed histologically. In contrast, lymphoid population was rarely detectable in the appendix at 79 and 80 years of age, and no lymphoid follicles were present histologically. Interestingly, cytograms from a case at 5 days of age suggested the existence of immature immune cells, as forward scatter showed an increase in cell size of the lymphocyte population. Histological analysis in UC patients found submucosal fat in the appendix of a case 66 years of age. Lymphoid follicular formation and mucosal structure were disrupted in cases of 70 and 72 years of age. UC patients may be more susceptible to steatotic change. Cytograms from appendices of UC patients also supported these histological findings. Our study confirms previous results that lymphoid tissues in the appendix degenerate over time, and proposes that inflammatory insult may facilitate the degenerative process in patients with UC.
Summary: Objective: This study evaluated the clinical feasibility of a new low-cost TomoTherapy system (OnradTM) and compared it with low-cost linear accelerator models (linacs).
Methods: Various aspects of treatment and cost were compared between Onrad and linacs for 3-dimensional radiotherapy (3DCRT). Dosimetric comparisons of 10 patients each with breast, stage III lung, prostate, head and neck, and cervical cancers were carried out (total 100 plans).
Results: Onrad had advantages in terms of availability of long treatment fields and a smaller mechanical footprint. For breast cancers and lung cancers, target dose homogeneity in Onrad plans was better than that in 3DCRT. In the prostate plans, Onrad plans provided superior D95, conformity and homogeneity. The rectum doses of Onrad plans were lower than those with 3DCRT. Onrad plans provided superior homogeneity and D95 in head and neck cancer. The mean dose and V10-40 Gy of the parotid glands was lower using Onrad. In the cervical cancer plans, target doses were similar with both systems. Normal tissue doses were equal.
Conclusions: Onrad is useful in the clinical setting. Onrad can achieve favorable or comparable dose distributions compared with those of 3DCRT in actual clinical treatment of breast, lung, prostate, head and neck, and cervical cancers.
Summary: A number of antioxidants have been used to treat peripheral nerve injury. However, there are few definitive experimental studies of ozone therapy for peripheral nerve cut injury. We aimed to examine the effects of mild level ozone therapy on sciatic nerve regeneration. One hundred adult male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into four groups: group 1 (n=20) no cut injury or therapy; group 2 (n=20) sham; group 3 (n=30) nerve cut injury, no therapy; group 4 (n=30) nerve cut injury and ozone therapy. Sciatic functional index (SFI) and withdrawal reflex (WDR) were measured for all groups before nerve cut, at postoperative day 1, and at weeks 2, 4, 6 and 8. More myelinated (M) nerve fibers were observed after nerve cut injury in the ozone-therapy group. Significant differences were seen in plasma SOD (superoxide dismutase), CAT (catalase) and GPx (glutathione peroxidase) activities (p<0.05), and significant functional improvement was observed at postoperative weeks 2 and 4 (p<0.05) after ozone treatment. This is the first study conducted for the purpose of examining the effects of ozone therapy on sciatic nerve cut injury.
Summary: Background: Osteoarthritis of the knee (KOA) is the most common cause of disability in both the United States and in Japan. The Hybrid training system (HTS) has been developed as a resistance exercise method combining electrical stimulation with voluntary exercise. The purpose of the present study is to compare the effects of a conventional rehabilitation program with or without HTS on knee muscle strength and physical function after Total knee arthroplasty (TKA).
Methods: We conducted a 12-week randomized controlled trial, using standard rehabilitation (the control group, n = 27) or standard rehabilitation plus HTS (the HTS group, n= 26), in 53 female patients after TKA. The HTS group underwent HTS three times per week for twelve weeks after TKA. Muscle strength, thigh circumference, physical functional testing, QOL and knee pain were assessed before surgery, 6 and 12 weeks after TKA.
Results: There was a significant decrease in quadriceps strength and thigh circumference on the operative side in the control group, but not in the HTS group at 6 weeks. Hamstring strength on the operative side in the HTS group significantly increased and thigh circumference was bigger than in the control group at 12 weeks. Physical function improved at 6 weeks in the HTS group, but not in the control group. Knee pain significantly improved in both groups at 6 weeks.
Conclusions: HTS was effective in preventing quadriceps weakness and in improving physical function and QOL after TKA.
Summary: Objectives: The aim of this study is to clarify factors that support the work engagement of nurses, who bear the burden of extended day shifts, by focusing on the advantages of the variable shift system and workday break activities.
Methods: Nurses who were working under a variable shift system were asked to complete a self-report questionnaire to examine the workload, work engagement, work stressors, stress-coping strategies, and stress-coping break time activities, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the variable shift system. Nine break activities were classified into the following four categories: social activities, rest/relaxation, entertainment, and cognitive activities. The advantages or disadvantages of the variable shift system were scored by developing composite variables using principal component analysis. These variables were used to perform a multiple regression analysis with work engagement as the dependent variable.
Results: The advantage score was the variable most strongly correlated with work engagement. In contrast, “Quantitative workload” was negatively correlated with work engagement. Among break activities, in the social activities category correlations were observed in “Both conversation and Email/SNS” and “Conversation only”. Although in fact most nurses chose conversation as one of the break options, more than half of the nurses selected rest/relaxation as their ideal break activity.
Conclusion: Our study suggested that the variable shift system supported the work engagement of nurses who worked extended day shifts. The results also suggested that it would be useful to arrange the employee lounge environment so that employees could freely choose between “conversation” or “taking a rest” depending on the circumstances.
Summary: The maternal immune system needs to be tolerant of allogeneic fetal tissue for reproductive success. The regulatory immune cell network plays an essential role in maintaining maternal tolerance to the fetus. We herein demonstrate in a green fluorescent protein (GFP)/IL-10 reporter mouse system that unique IL-10-expressing cells exist presumably in chorionic villi within the placenta. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that these IL-10- expressing cells exhibit a unique CD19 negative, CD3 negative, and B220 positive phenotype. Interestingly, these cells were enriched during in vitro culture, but well-known stimuli for T cells and B cells failed to enhance their growth, suggesting that the CD19- CD3- B220+ cells were self renewing. Unexpectedly, in an adoptive cell trans fer experiment, IL-10 production was detected in Sca-1+ CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg). To our knowledge, this is the first report to identify IL-10-producing CD19- CD3- B220+ cells in the fetus. These cells may rep resent a potential progenitor of Sca-1+ Treg or pluripotent precursor cells for immune tolerance.
Summary: The treatment of Gustilo type IIIB and IIIC open fractures remains a challenging problem, because the infection rate is 15-45%. Infection can lead to serious complications such as osteomyelitis or amputation. The intra-wound continuous negative pressure and irrigation treatment (IW-CONPIT) was developed for infected wounds and intractable ulcers, and is very effective in suppressing infection and accelerating wound healing. Here the IW-CONPIT was applied to severe open fractures for the purpose of preventing infection. After thorough debridement and lavage of the wound, bony stabilization is performed by external fixation. Dermal matrix is grafted onto any areas where the bone or tendon is exposed. A sponge containing two tubes is placed over the entire surface of the wound including the dermal matrix. Then it is covered with a film dressing to make the wound completely airtight. A bottle of physiologic saline solution is attached to one tube, and a continuous aspirator is attached to the other. This system maintains negative pressure on the wound surface, which is continuously irrigated. Thirty-five patients were treated with this method. A superficial infection developed in two cases but was resolved by additional debridement and continued application of IW-CONPIT. Complete wound healing was obtained with split thickness skin graft in all cases. There were no complications such as osteomyelitis, delayed bone union or amputation. IW-CONPIT was able to definitively prevent wound infection in Gustilo type ⅢB open fractures. We believe this method will become a standard treatment option for this condition.
Summary: A 53-year-old male presented with cough, skin rash and lymphadenopathies complicated with hypereosinophilia (HE) in the blood, and patchy shadows in both lungs on chest computed tomography. Reactive causes for HE were excluded, and no clinical or laboratory features of myeloproliferative disorders could be found. HE caused by aberrant T-cell subsets was suspected because of serum hyper-immunoglobulin E level, and organ involvement of skin and lungs, though we could show neither aberrant T-cell surface markers nor T-cell receptor gene rearrangement. In the course of steroid monotherapy, tolerable maintenance dose could not be attained and the steroid-sparing agents of hydroxycarbamide, cyclosporine and interferon-α were introduced. However, the therapeutic response was inadequate, and organ involvement of lungs and intestinal tract developed. HE caused by aberrant T-cell subsets has steroid resistance and a risk of malignant transition, and we considered this progressive steroid refractoriness to be a sign of such a transition. Cytotoxic chemotherapy or bone marrow transplantation will likely be the next treatment modality in this patient.