Summary: Background: Carnitine plays a pivotal role in energy synthesis through β-oxidation in mitochondria. Serum and tissue levels of free carnitine are significantly decreased in dialysis patients, whereas acylcarnitine levels are increased. However, the precise kinetics and fate of carnitine fractions in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients who are not on dialysis have not been clarified. This study aims to determine the kinetics of serum carnitine fractions in patients who were not on dialysis.
Methods: Seventy-five CKD patients not on dialysis were recruited in this study. Serum and urinary carnitine fraction levels were measured to evaluate the kinetics and regulation of serum carnitine fractions. Carnitine fractions were measured by the enzymatic cycling method.
Results: Total and free serum carnitine levels did not change with progression of CKD, whereas acylcarnitine levels and the acyl/free carnitine ratio significantly increased. Serum acylcarnitine levels were inversely associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (r2 = 0.239, p < 0.001), but free carnitine levels were not. Serum free carnitine levels were positively associated with urinary free carnitine excretion (r2 = 0.214, p < 0.001), but serum acylcarnitine levels were not. Multiple stepwise regression analysis revealed that urinary free carnitine excretion and blood urea nitrogen were independent determinants of serum free carnitine and acylcarnitine levels, respectively.
Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that serum acylcarnitine levels increased with renal dysfunction independent of urinary excretion levels. Serum free carnitine was not affected by renal function in CKD patients who were not on dialysis.
Summary: Background: Students at schools may need first aid due to illness or accident. Therefore, teachers at school should know first aid measures and be able to put them into practice. The aim of this study is to assess awareness regarding first aid training among primary school teachers.
Methods: Subjects were 150 primary school teachers from nine schools in the Udupi district of Karnataka. They were assessed by predesigned questionnaire proforma, after which each teacher was interviewed and responses were discussed separately in smaller groups.
Results: Of the subjects, 11.3% felt that first aid is important and 87.7% said that it is very important and wanted to learn first aid. About a third (30.2%) of the teachers knew some basic treatments for minor emergencies but they didn’t recognize such treatments were called first aid. Most of the subjects (69.8%) were unfamiliar with the expression “first aid”.
Conclusion: First aid training should be included in the teacher training curriculum, and such training should be updated regularly.