In the Philippines, in public elementary schools and high schools, at the discretion of their parents, children are allowed to be taught religion by instructors assigned by religious organizations. At present, several religious organizations, especially the Catholic Church, send their instructors to teach religion in public schools to those children who belong to their own religions for not rnore than 30 minuted three times a week. This practice has been followed since the start of the American regime, that is, since the beginning of this century. Describing frequent arguments over the practice and its modifications throughout this century, this paper demonstrates the following points. In the first place, the provision was modified immensely during the 1950s. Until that time, religious instruction was given only outside the regular school timetable, but in 1953 an Administrative Order issued by President Quirino permitted religious instruction to be given within the school timetable as well as outside it. The new provision was reiterated in the Education Order of 1955. This modification resulted in increasing popularity of the practice, a state of affairs which has continued up to the present. In the second place, as an issue of educational policy, religious instruction was so critical that the argument influenced personnel matters within the Department of Education and presidential election results in the 1950s. In 1953, the Catholic Church loudly accused the Secretary of Education and two other officials of having neglected the implementation of religious instruction. Later in the presidential election of that year, the Church supported candidate Magsaysay, who promised the Church that he would appoint as Secretary of Education a man representing the sentiments of Catholics. And in 1955, in opposition to the drastic change in policy, a petition was filed with the Supreme Court to test the validity of the Education Order. In the third place, the Catholic Church played an important role in the development of the practice. In its need to expand religious education and provide more opportunities to teach the Catechism, the Catholic Church insisted on liberalizing the provision. Since the Church had an influence on the result of elections, pressure from it drastically changed the policy of Congress and Presidents on religious instruction. In the fourth place, the demand for religious education has been strong among the Filipino people, most of whom are devout Catholics. The demand was so strong that at the beginning of this century many people did not send their children to newly established public elementary schools where the Catechism was not taught. This demand was especially strong in the early 1950s because of the problem of juvenile delinquency and the threat of the arm of the Communist party named "Hukbalahap".
This paper sets out to clarify how educational relationships are understood in Niklas Luhmann's system theory. In this connection, special attention has to be paid to how Luhmann modified his theory. In his early works, Luhmann set up a thesis saying that "the educator is not the teacher as an individual but the interactive process called a lesson". In other words, education is not a matter of individual teachers but of educational relationships themselves. The teacher's approach is therefore understood not as a one-sided "intervention" directed at the student but as "interpenetration" between the education system and the personal system. However, if we conceive of education as "interpenetration", it became impossible to distinguish between socialization and intentional education. In this situation, following the introduction of the concept of "autopoiesis" in the 1980s, it became possible to distinguish between interpenetration as socialization and education as a communication system. Then, understanding in a lesson signifies understanding mediated by understanding of the communication system. That is to say, the student's understanding is made possible not by understanding the educator as an individual but by understanding the communication system constructed by the student and the educator. According to Luhmann's theory, the mechanism of education is uncertain simply because of the involvement of a psychic system as an autopoiesis system. However, education becomes possible at the point when a psychic system participates actively in the education system. That said, the education system will always be a problematical system. Because it cannot depend on the inner aspect or personality of an individual, it becomes routinized and differentiates people according to whether it grasps them or not. Or it may cause an unintended educational effect as a "hidden curriculum".
This study sets out to examine the content and meaning of the concept of "mental deficiency" as constructed by the school of Kido Mantaro prior to World War II, with particular emphasis on the perspective of ability and personality development in children with "Mentally deficiency". At the same time, by comparing Kido's concept of "mental deficiency" with the main concepts put forward by others, it aims to clarify the level of achievement in the prewar period. The concepts examined, in addition to that of Kido, are those of Aoki Seishiro, Miki Yasumasa and Okuda Saburo. The main results of the study are as follows:- (1) By means of a critical examination of the view of intelligence found in intelligence testing psychology, Kido Mantaro's school clarified the level of development of character and ability in children with "Mentally deficiency" in terms of "daily living ability" (seikatsu-noryoku) and "social cooperation" (shakai-kyoryoku). (2) While establishing a structure of rights in education and welfare for children with "Mentally deficiency", Kido's school proposed a theory of "education in daily living" with the objective of providing a guarantee for the daily life and development of such children. (3) From the perspective of "daily living ability" and "social cooperation", Kido's school proposed a new basis, in terms of education, daily living and the pursuit of happiness, for looking at persons with "mental deficiency", and constructed a new concept of "mental deficiency" with stress adaptation to society and social life. (4) The concept of "mental deficiency" formulated by Kido's school constituted a paradigmatic change in the theoretical history of this concept and represented a significant level of achievement in the prewar period.