The cytotropism of clinical pedagogy, whose aore is the theory of developmental support based on the comprehensive humanics, begins to deconstruct/re-construct the paradigm of contemporary pedagogy.It is academically influenced by the earthshaking changes in natural sciences such as complex systems or autopoiesis that focuses on the vacillation of the chaos and poiesis, by the turning movement to the unique concreteness in social science, and also by the revival of H.Wallon's theory and of authentic L.S.Vygotsky's theory(narrative psychology or cultural historical activity theory) in cultural sciences and theoried of development.During the present time, the theory of development support that consructs the core of the cytotropism has some theoretical tendencies as follows: the developmental supports of the post-authoritarianism and peer narrative, the pos-tindividualistic and community expansive, and the post-paternalistic and client empowermental.Thesee tendenciess are embossed with the agenda of clinical knowledge of education in the intermixed and oveerlapped field as follows.1)Narrative community as one of the most primitive metaphors of the developmental support/2)Narrative empowerment as hearing and talking with the agent dialogically to change the activity systems.3)Community empowerment as intervention to create the expansive activity systems.At the bottom of these ideas, there is the socaled 'neo-modern paradigm'.This current paradigm puts emphasis on the articulation of subject-object in the schema of interactive monism between subject and object, and on the epistemology of creative imagination based on the collaborative change of not only the subjective meaning but also the the ojective reality.In this paradigm, the identity of 'cogito' once de-construct in the context of monophonic interaction, after that, the identity of 'imago' re-construct in the context of polyphonic interaction, and at last, it elucidates the outline and trajectory of transfering identity of 'nom propre'.One of the most important research field of the learning community including the ordinal instructions that contains a main topos of the school clinical activites.In addition, it must be also important to irradiate/reradiate the boundary crossing fields of authentic pedagogy (psychology, sociology, philosophy, medical science, and welfare theory etc.) in view of these innovations od clinical pedagogy.It would be necessary for clnical pedagogy to accumulate the case studies of the interventional research to seek out emergent multiple frameworks to analyze and describe the critical disturbances of the community/individual development as Y.Engestrom's DWR designed in an E.Levinas' or a H.Wallon's mode.
In this article, instead of addressing issues of clinical knowlefge of education directly, I think carefully about my experience of writing and revising a high school Civics textbook (KITOGAKKO GENDAI-SHAKAI) and summarize the practical wisdom that I have acquired during the course in terms of the following three mottos.1.Reversing orders2.Changing parts of speech, and3.Transgressing borders.First, I propose (and actually have carried out in the textbook I have written)changing tracks within the framework of official teaching guidelines (GAKUSHU-SHIDO-YORYO).To illustrate, I reverse the authorized order in the guidelines and put the item of 'the ethic of democratic of Society' prior to the study of Constitution of Japan.Likewise, with regard to the contemporary social issues, I suggest that high school students had better start by learnig about the local familiar affairs, i.e. 'the affuent society and welfare society', and move on to more and more global and intricate issues (such as global environmental problems).Second, I try to paraphrase basic abstract terms such as 'rifht', 'responsibility' and 'freedom' by way of changing parts of speech.It seems best to me to make full use of verbal and adjectival phrases that correspond to such abstract nouns.For ezample, 'himan reghts' can be explained by restating that they are so important to us that if one deprived you of any of them, you would cease to be what you are.In this case, I drew on the definiton given by Michael Freeden, namely "a human right is a conceptual device, expressed in linguistic form, that assigns priiority to certain human or social attributes regarded as essential to the adequate functioning of a human being."Third, I insist on collaboration among three Civics courses : Contemporary Society (GENDAISHAKAI), Ethics (RINRI)and Politics and Economy (SEIGI-KEIZAI).This collaboration is meant for efficiently elucidating basic conceppts common to these courses (e.g., 'good', 'value', and 'duty'), which have been taught separately in each.Finally, I conclude my paper by a critical comment on the ongoing governmental intervention to elementary moral education, specifically, the top-down distribution of materials entitled 'KOKORO NO NOTO'at public expense.Tjis pocy betrays the lack og a proper social or institutionall point of view, and is meant to control student's minds clinically.
To acquire clinical knowledge, we have to be sensitive to the context underlying in our mutual relationships and social circumstances, which is supposed to be the indisoutable truth in the common sense.It could be claimed that the intention and meanings of the handcapped child's behavior shows up in a different context as mutual understanding vary between him-her and a teacher or with other children.n othe words, we should shed kight on the context in the guman relational circumstances surrouding the children before we discuss and examine the degree and definitions of the disorders.DIscrimination is not a simple psychological matter.It inevitably accompanies "reversal sence", that is, discriminators have unconsiously the sense that he, himself is contaminated and excluded by contaminated(discriminated) people.In japanese schoolks confronting "ijime", "class", we have to be aware of the "reversal sense" and overcome it even though it is difficult to attempt.This paper reports the workshops which were intended to make my students aware of those discriminative, exclusive, and reversal senses.These workshops are the first steps to recover tthe concept of care in education.That is why we must criticize school counseling based mainly on the clinical psychology for separating education in two parts : teaching and carering of mind.
The aim of the current oaoer is to describe the meanings the clinical pedagogy has implicated by its naming as "clinical".one of the implicationss by the clinical pedagogy is criticism to the current pedagogy and theory of educational oractices that are not able to solvee the difficulties of students and teachers.This criticism should not be interoreted that clinical psychology or other disciplines should substitute the pedagogy or theory of educational practicesss in the school settng.From the viewpoint of "special nedds education" mostt school classes in Japan are consisted of students with heterogeneous special educational needs.This character of the school classes must kead to reconsider the current concept of educational practices.In other words, teaching and careingg practices in regular classrooms has been confronted with serious difficulties the students have shown for various reasons.From another side, many students today have troubles and harsh experiences in and out of school e.g. witshdrawal, bullying, LD ADHD, Aspergersyndrom and other emotional and behavioral difficulties.The 70's pedagogy have belived that students are educated to be consious and active and objective.But the difficulties of students in school show such thinking is not sufficient because the other side of the individual, namely emotional wellbeing in an educational setting, passiveness, homeostasis in physical and psychological sense, and inner self are often overlooked.These aspects of the student's personality underpin thier consious, active, and objective conducts which are often very damaged or disturbed.We must consider the implications of the term of "clinical".The term of "clinical" appears to suggest that the starting points should be 1)the needs of the students2)responsiveness from the teacher to the needs of the students in daily school life.The participants in the clinical field are not objective of scientiffic research, but are observed as active subjects in practices and also in pedagogy.The tasks of pedagogy in such meaning should not be externalized outside of the teachres works to a counseling or psychotherapy.The concepts of "clinical pedagogy"does not demand an alternative for pedagogy, but demands that pedagogy itself should be innovated so that students could be more individually treated which woulf lead to higher self-esteem on acount of this empowerment.In order to empower the students with needs teachers should be supported and empowered.
Since the 1980's, the concept of 'caring' has been used in the United States and England.The paradigm of nursing care for the sick, taking care the aged and people with mental disorders have been sifting from'care'to 'carein'.Though 'Care'is, for example, traditional nursing care based on the 'medicalmodel'(help with eating, taking a bath, evacuation, etc), 'Caring' is based on the socalled 'life-support model', aiming towards mental and emotional rest and the development of A.D.L.(centering on the relationship between tendersand the tended people, in which behavior the good relationship on the mutual behavior and act between both sides have to be accomplished with affection, help, and sympathy.)Since the 1990's in Japan, similar tendencies have been applied in such fields, which means the shift from mass-care to unit-careing (formed by several menbers less than 10 persons) has occured.Unit-caring movement started on the civilian sector, and then recently, government sector promoting the 'caring' concept and its movement.It is very important for the tenders to create the 'whereabout' of the tended persons, to acquire the competence and skills to consider thier identity, will and motivations of old age, and to understand them with open mind at the encounter 'here and now' as a subject of 'doing'.As a result, presently, paradigm-shift from 'care' to 'caring' is being applied through study and training courses in Japan.In this paper, I consider the paradigm-shift from 'care' to 'caring', which have been applied to taking care of dementia old age.Also, I attempt to order the process of constructing 'caring ethics' on such a background, as well as to enlighten the matter with the training and curriculum for practical workers.Next, I mention the circumstances of nursing care of the old aged with dementia and the importance of 'caring' competence and skills.Finally, I analyze the logical meaning of this new 'caring' paradigm, using the data by 'process-record method' which was presented in the training for professional caring workers in the 2001 current year in 'K' city in Japan.(*'Process-record method' were suggested in a field nursing care mental disease, noe this method has been expended in all nursing care.The Wiedenbach's method is the following format constructed by 1)talk and behavior of clients, 2)the reaction of the trainee, 3)the responsible reaction of trainees 4)simultaneously considering time)
The present paper aims to trace the changes of the concept of 'free, state-run Early Childhood Care Russia in the 1920s, and to consider the main factors of forming the ECCE system in modern society.The abouve concept was proposed by the head of ECCE administarators at the end of the 1910's.My main sources are the minutes of the Second and Third All-Russian Congresses on ECCE held in 1921 and 1924, the Third all-Russian Conference on ECCE held 1926, and unpublished materials in the archives of Moscow and Kirov.As a result, the following respects were clarified.1)The above concept dissolved tothe point where it consisted of a comparatively small network of mainly fee-charging public and private ECCE institutions by 1926.2)The enrollement rate in oermanent ECCE institutions 4.2% in te autumn of 1920on the maximum, so it seemed for ECCE administrators that the concept pf ECCE for all infants was approached achievement.However, the enrollment rate then dropped sharply to about 1% under the influence of the reduction in the ECCE budget by which the New Economic Policy(NEP) caought in the spring of 1921.The concept of ECCE for all infants clearly collapsed.3)The same conditions of NEP reversed the concept of free ECCE and all ECCE instituteions regardless of private, public, and the national began to charge tuition fees in 1925.4)The discussion of the concept of a state-run ECCE system was prolonged.The issue became how for to allow the expansion of the right to open private ECCE institutions.Let us enumerate the following people and organizations to be granted this right : (a)Soviets, the Communist Union of Youth, the Communist Children's Organization, labor union, cooperative associations of various kinds, factory committees, agricultural committees-(b)enterprises, factories, agricultural communes-(c)groups of people, residents and parents-(d)individuals.In 1926, after all, the above right was extended to all groups of people, not jest to individuals.5)After the trial and error more than half a century later, the concept of ECCE based on the principles of the modern public education had been achieved to some eztent in the 1970's and the 1980's.
In the Meiji Period several thousands of foreigners visited Japan to assist her modernization programs in various field.They were called "foreign employees".During 17 years, from 1901 to 1917, Yamaguchi prefecture hired foreign teachers totaling 46 for the improvement of English education at five prefectural middle schools.it is reported that in other prefectures a school or a prefectural government hired foreign teachers as an independent program of its own.But never in prefectures other than Yamaguchi can we find the case in which prefectural government employed foreign teachers to be institutionalized as a system just like the JETT Program of modern times.This paper intends to (1)clarify the unique nature of the foreign teacher system institutionalized by Yamaguchi Prefecture, (2)list the names, tenures and activities of the employed foreign teachers and (3) examine what legacy this system left behind for the present Japanese society at large.The paper also indicates that the foreign teachers sstem in Yamaguchi started with the intention to standardize the level education at five prefectural middle scools, based on the idea that authentic pronunciation is not only vital to learning English, but also must be acquired through native speakers.It should be noted that those foreign teachers were not mere assistants to Japanese counterparts but that they were positively involved in the education of young Japanese in and out of the classroom.Some of the foreign teachers were such talented educatiors that they held great influence concerning academics and character building of Japanese counterparts, to say nothing of the students.In spite of the unique role those foreign teachers played, the foreign teacher system of Yamaguchi Prefecture came to an end 1917 simply because it was not effective for entrance examinations which, by then, only focused on the reading ability of the ezaminees.Finally, the examination of the foreign teasher system of Yamaguchi Prefecture raises a fundamental and familiar issue : What is the ideal English education in Japan?
Tohoku University System Committee completed an interim report on the new system plan in preparation for the new university administration system as an "Independent Administrative Institution".The report was submitted to Tohoku University Council on Septemper 24, 2002.The resposes to the interim report from all the departments are to be presented to the Tohoku University Counsil in October, and the final reprt is scheduled for completion by March 2003.University regulations will have been put together by May when the bill was laid bedore the Diet in May.The structure of this thesis is as follows:(1)the system of the decision making of the entire Tohoku University (the president, director association, counsil, management conference, and dean conference) and (2)the system of the decision making within each department (dean, management conference, and faculty meeting) and (3)the collective system of the clerical office staff and (4) the personnel management and the performance ralated payment, and (5)the prpblems to be solved.The emphasis is placed upon the integration of the following three elements:(1)the leadership of theoresident and the associated directors, (2)the democracy within Tohoku University, and (3)outsider's opinions.The approach to the issue of how best the above three elements are to be integrated will decide the course hat Tohoku Univeristy will follow to make its advancement.The second issue is the decision making orocess in each department.Whikr the management conference which assist the dean eill be newly established, the relation between the management conference and the faculty meeting is rather vague.It is likely that the that the management conference will take part in most of the decision making process within each department, which signifies that the role of the faculty meeting become less important.The third issue is the consolidation of the clerical work organization.On one hand the colletive clerical work organization will improve its efficiency.On the other, the the existing friendly relations between clerical staff and a department will be weakened.However, this kind of drawback is probably inevitable.The fourth issue is the personnel management, and the performance related payment.It is agreed that the system of deciding the payment in accordance with seniority has to be abolished.Neverthless, it is difficult to evaluate the performance in terms of research, which remains a problem to be solved.Above all the issues discussed in this paper however, what is important is the implementation of the new university administration based on the new principles.
Ministry of Education and Science published Policies for the Structural Reform of Universities (National Universities) on June 11.2001, and Discussion Group on National Teacher-Training Universities and Faculties published the report, What National Universities and Faculties of Teacher-Training Should be Hereafter, on November 22, 2001, both of which accelerate the reformation of national colleges and national universities' faculties of teacher-training.I will descraibe the basic principle and procedure of the reorganization of the Faculty of Education in Fukushima University according to these reprts.The reform of Fukushima University including the reorganization of Faculty of Education, on the one hand, is to establish College of Science and Engineering by reorganizing the whole new Fukushima Univeristy as 'a university that emphasizes education of capable people with high skills'.The new Fukushima University will consist of two clusters, and twelve academic sections.On the other hand, it is to reform the faculty of teacher-training (Faculty of Educatio)into a ner non-teacher-training faculty.College of Human Development and Culture, with new academic subjects.We are preparing to provide three courses, where students can get certificates of teachers of elementary school, kindergarten, school for the handcapped, Japanese, English, Mathematics, Social Studies, Home Making, Music, Fine Arts, and Health and Physical Educattion.In addition, we are planning to established Comprehensive Center for Education Studies (tentative name), Which is responsible for teacher training within ner Fukushima University.We are also planning to establish System of collective responsibility for teacher taining in the southern Tohoku area.
It was January 17 2002 that each Council of Gunma University and Saitama University decided to talk with about synthesis.Since then, for about these nine months, we habe been discussing on the synthesis seriously and acutely.The most important and difficult ploblem is that how we should regulate Faculty of Education of Gunma University and that of Saitama University.The issue in thsi ploblem is that how we should realize "Power up " and "Community Service" after the sysnthesis of both Universities.If we should accentuate "Speciality" or "Originality" as Faculty of Education and to educate many excellent teachers, we should need to realize "Power up" considering "Scale Merit", and so it may be effectural that we synthesize both faculties together.But if er would tys to so, the community(the Prefecture)that loses Faculty of Education will suffer heavy damage.Thus the ploblem of "Power up" and "Community Service" of the Faculty of Education falls into a serious dilemma.This eassy is an interim report the synthesis process in these nine months, in a position of a University.I think that this Gunma-Saitama case, though it is an individual case, is going to become an important "Procedent" or "Model" for future resemble cases.