Inclusive education means that all children go to the same school and get education in the same classroom irrespective of a presence of disabilities. It is said that interchange experience with people with disabilities and without disabilities has a positive influence to understand people with disabilities. Therefore, it is necessary that people with disabilities and without disabilities interchange to achieve inclusive education. There are studies of changes of participants’ consciousness and the understanding of people with disabilities before and after an alternating program, but there has been no study about continual influence so far.
The purpose of this study is to examine the change in consciousness and understand of people with disabilities, and a period of duration of the change achieved by experience of interaction.
Ten university students answered the questionnaire before and after the exchange meeting. After that, they answered the questionnaire four times once a month. In addition, nine university students participated in discussions before and after the exchange meeting. From the result of the questionnaire, in 4 out of 5 factors, the score after 4 months did not fall below the level before the exchange meeting and the positive and negative influence by the interchange became clear. The positive influence was an increased awareness of voluntary interchange. This study suggests that the negative influence is caused by lack of knowledge about disabilities and disruption of interaction with people with disabilities. This study clarified that enough security of the learning time about disabilities and people with disabilities, and voluntary participation are indispensable for interchange experience.
This study clarified the current situation of coaching concerning the checking of movement in a competitive
sports scene in high schools or colleges. The actual use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in
track-and-field sprinters was surveyed.
Sprinters paid attention to their lower limbs, such as in foot movement ( 64.8% ) or grounding ( 67.6% ),
compared with fluctuations of their trunk ( 33.3% ) or waist height ( 30.5% ) ( p ＜ .001 ).
This indicates that sprinters judge the quality of body movement based on the movement of the lower limbs.
For future studies, examining particular ICT use methods, such as focus points, to spread coaching methods
using ICT will be needed.
In sport, self-talk and verbal persuasion from others are effective tools for raising motivation and maximizing performance, and various case study research has been published. Feedback from others can have a good or bad influence depending on their relationships and the level of their rapport. In other words, coaches and teammates need to understand the athlete’s characteristics and conditions for appropriate verbal persuasion （Horikawa et al., 2016）.
The purpose of this study was to explore how the use of verbal persuasion for athletes can have a positive effect on them during times when they are not performing to the best of their ability. Participants were 16 of university athletes and world class athletes （8 men and 8 women）.
From this research, we found that when athletes are underperforming, the form of verbal persuasion that is most effective in improving their performance is ‘confirming mistakes and focusing on constructive points of the next action’. We also discovered that some voice calls can actually worsen the athletes’ performance when the call focuses on ‘sticking to mistakes, scolding and inducing regret’. In this study, we focused on voicing, but found that attitudes such as ‘nonverbal communication’ are also important. For players, ‘negative messages without words’ may have a stronger influence than voice when they fall into a state of underperformance. The overriding conclusion was that it is important to ‘make vocalizations’ during a game that focus constructively on the next action.