The intent of this study is to examine the formation of modern schools in the Iwate Tono area during the "Jiyuminken" (People's Right Movement) era. The formation of modern schools in the "Jiyuminken" era has yet to be fully studied. By focusing on schools in the Iwate Tono area, the considerable role of the People's Right Movement in encouraging reform can be clearly defined. The leaders of the People's Right Movement recruited competent teachers who changed the traditional state of elementary schools in Tono. Reforms during the "Jiyuminken" era stimulated people's interest in education. As a result, the expansion of the People's Right Movement led to the formation of modern schools.
The Law Regarding City, Town and Village Organization ("Shiseichosonsei") and "the Explanation of the Law Regarding City, Town and Village " ("Shiseichosonsei Riyu") were simultaneously issued in 1888. The latter stated for the first time that education is a national concern. By analyzing the formation of "Shiseichosonsei", this paper will clarify the process that the Meiji Government used to assume control over education. In fact, the nationalization of educational affairs was put into operation through "Shogakkorei" (the Second Elementary Education Act) and "Chihogakujitsusoku" (the law for local education) in 1890. There are, however, some differences between these two acts and "Shiseichosonsei", regarding regulation of the educational affairs committee ("Gakumuiin"). The former restricted the authority of "Gakumuiin" more than the latter. By means of the examination of historical records of "public archives", "Omori-monjo" and so on, this paper clarifies the reason why the differences existed. As a result, this paper presents the fact that the "Shiseichosonsei" article naming "Gakumuiin" as a Permanent Committee ("Josetsuiin") disappeared at the Cabinet level. Furthermore, the duties of "Josetsuiin" were shifted from inherent affairs of local self-governments to administrative ones. Before the Cabinet meeting, some members of the Editorial Committee of Local Institutions ("Chihoseidohensaniinkai") opposed the abolition of "Josetsuiin" by A. Yamagata. This paper clarifies that the nationalization of educational affairs by the Meiji Government in the formation of "Shiseichosonsei" was not determined by a consensus of the Editorial Committee. Their resistance produced inconsistencies between "Shiseichosonsei" and "Shogakkorei", "Chihogakujitsusoku".
This paper examines education policies in Karafuto during the 1920's, specifically the "Reform" of elementary education system. The southern part of Sakhalin (Karafuto) became a Japanese colony after the 1905 Portsmouth Treaty between Japan and Russia. The Japanese government made the Russian residents return to their own country and recruited Japanese settlers; consequently, Japanese made up 87% of all residents. A Japanese ethnic majority distinguished Karafuto from other Japanese colonies. As a result, the government decided to enforce a legal system similar to that found in the Japanese homeland. Elementary education in Karafuto consisted of two systems. One was the government elementary school system for residents who lived in urban areas, and the other was a private elementary school system for rural residents. These two systems differed considerably in facilities and teachers' status and salaries. In 1920, Karafuto-Chou (The colonial government of Karafuto) united the two elementary school systems. All teachers' salaries were to be paid from the treasury. Additional school expenditures were to be paid by local administrations, established in 1922. Karafuto-Chou dictated educational policy, but left its enforcement to the schools. The "Reform" of elementary education system in Karafuto had important consequences. It made necessary preparations for the enforcement of compulsory education, while simultaneously creating a method of controlling residents through the schools. Furthermore, it was an important factor in imposing a local administrative system, which in turn must be maintained by Karafuto residents.
The activity-oriented education at Tajima elementary school was well-known among the various new education movements of 1920's and 1930's Japan. The school principal Hiroshi Yamazaki followed the theory of "Kultur Padagogik," advocated by Soju Irisawa, an associate professor of Tokyo Imperial University. Yamazaki struggled to coordinate a school-wide program with the school's teachers; their program lasted more than a decade. However, educational historians have not thoroughly examined the relevance of theoretical validity with the substance of educational methods, only to superficially conclude with a discussion of the interdependence of the concept of "experience" and the Japanese nationalistic spirit The intent of this paper is to thoroughly investigate the significance of a "Kultur Padagogik" based school program and its successful implementation. For this purpose, I analyze the social constructionist aspects of the lower grade programs of the school, such as "education with play" as well as a leading teacher's curriculum planning. First, I clarify the structural development of the "education with play" and its important role in activity-oriented education. "Education with play" was designed to be situated at the introductory level to stimulate the children's own initiative to organize purposeful activities. Second, I determine the school's degree of successful implementation of the original curriculum. The teachers surveyed the children's needs in order to pursue drastic curriculum reform by integrating "play" as an important part of the curriculum.
This paper investigates the history of education of juvenile delinquents in Japan. The purpose of this study is to examine how Meiji era Japanese researched the system and ideas of education for juvenile delinquents in the western world. In particular I focus on Kosuke Tomeoka (1864-1934), the leader of the Japanese reform school, who carried out research in America and Europe, and on his return conveyed to the Japanese people what he had learned as well as founding one of his reform schools, 'Katei Gakko', Family School, in 1899. First, I analyze when and what kinds of institutions Tomeoka visited during his two trips abroad. Then I will discuss Tomeoka's conclusions regarding the different systems he encountered. In the nineteenth century, the internal organization of American reform schools gradually changed from the 'congregate' system that housed large numbers of children in the same place, to the 'cottage' system that dealt with smaller groups of around 30 boys. Tomeoka visited both types of reform schools and like progressive American reformers, judged the 'cottage' system to be the more effective. Moreover, he noticed that female staff, called matrons, played an important role in each cottage. He was also interested in 'the placing-out system', so-called fosterage, used in the western world. The idea of the cottage system was summed up in the following phrase, 'Christ's love is the strongest wall', a phrase attributed to Immanuel Wichern, who founded the Rauhe Haus in Germany. Tomeoka found the phrase in the book, Praying and Working by William Fleming Stevenson. When Tomeoka founded Katei Gakko, he adopted the 'cottage' system with matrons, and recorded that it was based on Wichern's Rauhe Haus. However, on several points he adapted and improved upon the western model, introducing his own ideas into his interpretation of the cottage system.
The purpose of this study is to define the process of the institutionalization of an open door policy for higher schools (Koto-gakko) to allow girls to attend. In Japan, higher schools had been only for boys until 1947. In the early stages of preparation for "A New General Plan of Female Education Reform", the Ministry of Education had planned to open the door of higher schools to girls. In the plan, girl's special colleges (Joshi-senmon-gakko), higher courses (Koto-ka) and special courses (Senko-ka) of higher girl's schools (Koto-jogakko) would be changed into "girl's higher schools (Joshi-koto-gakko)". However, a difficulty arose in changing girl's special colleges into "girl's higher schools". Also, it became possible for girls to receive a higher school level education through other means. Because of this, in 1946, the Ministry of Education denied the urgent need of an open door policy for higher schools, refusing to qualify girls for entry into higher schools. The revision of the Constitution made it necessary to allow girls to qualify for entry into higher schools. Therefore, the establishment of "higher schools for girls" was once more chosen as the way to open the door of higher schools to girls. However, the plan to reform the school system intended to abolish the higher schools. This made it difficult to carry out an open door policy for higher schools in this way. Eventually, opening the door of higher schools to girls was realized by transforming higher schools into coeducational institutions. The revision of the Constitution required a revision of the purpose (the first) and entrance qualification (the 12th) articles of the imperial ordinance regarding higher schools. However, only the purpose was revised, and entrance qualifications were not. This originates from having tried to deal with the issue of girls' entrance qualification as an exception to the rule.
This research explores the significance of Fukuzawa Yukichi's influence upon Yu Kil-chun's educational ideas, contained in his famous work, Seoyukyyeonmun, "Western Learning". Yu Kil-chun studied at Keio-kijuku in Japan (Univ. of Keio) from 1881 to 1882, and in 1895, he published Seoyukyyeonmun with support from Fukuzawa Yukichi. It is therefore assumed that Fukuzawa Yukichi's educational ideas of Enlightenment naturally influenced Yu Kil-chun's ideas that are found in Seoyukyyeonmun. This research makes three arguments regarding Yu Kil-chun's educational ideas that are discussed in Seoyukyyeonmun. First, Yu Kil-chun's views on history were based on social evolution theory. He tried to realize Choson modernization in Choson through the methodology of this theory. Second, Yu Kil-chun's views on human rights and the nation follow Enlightenment ideals that emphasized freedom of the individual and the sovereignty of the nation. Third, Yu Kil-chun's educational ideas were based on concepts of Western Enlightenment philosophy.
A total enrollment of at least 180 Taiwanese and 205 Korean students was confirmed in prewar AOYAMA GAKUIN. 111 Taiwanese students were included in the middle school register, and most of them proceeded to the special college of medicine or the higher school after graduation. On the other hand, most Korean students registered in the special college of divinity or English literature; employed students concentrated on English literature or economics courses in night-school, established in 1941. It is concluded that, in the history of Taiwanese and Korean students in Japan, AOYAMA GAKUIN was a foundation for Taiwanese students seeking to graduate middle school and qualify for higher schools, whereas for Korean students it was a special organ for the study of divinity or English literature. The authorities exercised severe control over Korean students who involved in independence or nationalist movements. Thus, Aoyama Gakuin's environment seemed to differ for Taiwanese and Korean students. Regarding studies of the history of Taiwanese and Korean students in Japan, even the statistics of prewar numbers of Taiwanese and Korean students remains incomplete. Therefore the overall picture of these studies can be grasped by using a method of analyzing the actual situation of an individual schools. On that occasion, it is important to view the situation of Taiwanese and Korean students simultaneously, as well as conducting a survey of secondary education.
The purpose of this paper is to consider the origin of the concept "Padagogik (pedagogy)" through an examination of its usage by Schlozer (August Ludwig von, 1735-1809), who used the word as a technical term for the first time in the history of literature. The appearance of "Padagogik" as a technical term has been hitherto explained in relation to the intellectual climate of the age ; however, the relationship between Schlozer and the concept "Padagogik" has not yet been examined in the historical study of education. In order to clarify the formation of the concept "Padagogik", it is necessary to focus on Schlozer. First, the paper clarifies Schlozer's interest in an ordered systematic principle found in La Chalotais' "Essai d'Education Nationale" (1763) through an analysis of Schlozer's comparison of the educational theory of La Chalotais with that of Basedow. While Schlozer favored the systematic principle in La Chalotais' Plan d'Edude (the study plan), he originally designed "Das padagogisches Feld (pedagogical field)" in order to directly examine the systematic principle. This fact shows that Schlozer attempted to establish "Padagogik" as a discipline. Moreover, the paper tries to clarify Schlozer's intention to establish a specific field of educational studies. Schlozer not only accepted the study plan, but also the concept of secularization of education adopted by La Chalotais. Schlozer's support of the secularization of education opposed theologians of the time who were very influential in the educational world. These considerations persuaded Schlozer to establish "Padagogik" as a discipline. Finally, by quoting a letter addressed to Schlozer that was drafted by Zedlitz, a favorite of Friedrich the Great, the paper also points out Schlozer's influence on the establishment of the first pedagogy class at Halle University in Germany (Prussia).