The objective of this article is to provide an overview of the discussion for Tokyo 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games Sustainability Plan, made at the commission for urban planning and sustainability under the Tokyo Organizing Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games, in which the author has participated as a member. Tokyo 2020 set the sustainability concept of the Games as “Be better, together – For the planet and the people”, and set key concepts of 5 selected goals; “Towards Zero Carbon”, “Zero Wasting”, “City within Nature/Nature within the City”, “Celebrating Diversity” and “United in Partnership & Equality” as well as concrete targets for these goals. This article also introduces a few examples of individual actions and projects, for which life cycle approach and quantification of environmental burdens and impacts are relevant. Key projects for resource management include “The Tokyo 2020 Medal Project”, by which recycled metals from small electric appliances in urban mines are used for gold, silver and bronze medals.
Winners’ medals for the 2020 Tokyo Olympics and Paralympics are all made from recycled materials for the first time in Olympic history. It can be called as “urban mined medals” made from recycled urban resources by citizen, not from conventional natural ore resources. This paper describes its significance and the movement to establish it as a legacy to be inherited toward a sustainable society.
In this report, taking the Tokyo 2020 Games as an example, I will discuss the background of the need for procurement with consideration for sustainability, recent trends, the way to cope with the future, and the steps to sustainable procurement. The Olympic and Paralympic Games are the worldʼs largest sports events that have a wide range of influences, on society and economy. In addition, the impact extends not only to the host city, but also to the host country and even to the world. For this reason, at the Tokyo 2020 Games, procurement of products and services in consideration of environmental aspects as well as social aspects （sustainable procurement） is performed. Sustainable procurement is an effective measure to improve sustainability of the entire supply chain, and can provide a business opportunity for participants. However, there are unresolved issues such as the low rate of coverage, the lack of staff members and the excessive number of supply chains. Therefore, the Green Purchasing Network （GPN） has established The Sustainable Procurement Action Program to promote sustainable procurement. This program includes a checklist to evaluate the environmental aspects of the company and its products/services, as well as the social aspects including supplier identification and qualification.
June 2018, The Tokyo Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games （TOCOG） disclosed “Tokyo 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games Sustainability Plan Vwersion2”. In this Plan, TOCOG explained GHG emissions and reduction measures by implementing Tokyo 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games （Tokyo 2020 Games）. March 2019, TOCOG disclosed “Sustainability Progress Report”. This Report showed determinate and progress reduction measures. Carbon Footprint was one of the important methods in GHG emission reductions in Tokyo 2020 Games. Olympic and Paralympic Games is very large and global event. Therefore, the reduction plan of Tokyo 2020 Games will be used in the event that will carry out after Tokyo 2020 Games as a legacy plan. It is an interest case that Carbon Footprint in which important method that TOCOG consider reduction plans in Tokyo 2020 Games. I will explain contents that Tokyo 2020 games consider and execute Carbon Footprint and GHG emission reductions based on disclosed TOCOG report contents.
Recently, nickel based superalloy is used for aero-engines to improve the fuel-efficiency and performance, and rhenium （Re） is an important material for superalloy, especially, to enhance the high temperature creep characteristic. However, the supply of Re is highly volatile because of the low reserves of natural resources. In this work, the authors estimated the demand, stock and recycle potential for Re for the civil aircraft from 1980 to 2017 by a substance flow analysis. As a result, Re demand for aircraft production and stock have kept increased since 1980. The maximum demand for new production and the stock were estimated as 49.9 t in 2016 and 708 t in 2017, respectively. And the demand for maintenance was depend on the maintenance cycle, and the maximum demand was estimated as 29.8 t （4 years）, 18.3 t （6 years） and 12.2 （8 years） in 2017, respectively. The maximum recycle potential from retired aircraft was estimated as 15.3 t in 2015. Since 2013, the demand for new production of aircraft reached nearly the production of primary Re metal production, and the shortage of the supply was supposed to be covered by the scrap recycling from retired aircraft. However, the number of retired aircraft and the supply of old scrap was expected to decrease in the near future. Through this work, the importance to enhance the Re recovery from old scrap was suggested.
Since 1997, when the Kyoto Protocol was adopted, approaches to control global warming have been paid attention in Japan. And since the Paris Agreement was adopted, countermeasures against global warming have been globally required. At offices, choosing products with less emission of Greenhouse Gas （GHG） is optional at the time of purchases. Printers, consumables and paper used at offices are produced by various manufactures, which disclose in their own ways GHG emissions from their products. On the other hand, printers are used under different circumstances, which makes it difficult to understand the conditions during being used, while Eco-Leaf, a type-III environment label, calculates GHG emissions under product category rule （PCR）. When printed paper is sold and provided to third parties, it is appropriate to disclose GHG emissions from the printed paper; however, it is necessary for printer users to calculate GHG emissions from printed paper based on emissions disclosed separately by printer companies and paper companies. This research quantifies GHG emissions per printed page based on how users handle printers. As the result, factors to control GHG emissions become clarified, which gives more opportunities to users for choices of printers.