Blastobasidae are one of the most taxonomically difficult groups within the Gelechioidea. In addition, less than 10 percent of the species have host associations. Recently, observations of larvae of Blastobasidae revealed that they caused early fruit drop of the Satsuma mandarin, Citrus unshiu (Swingle) Marcowicz in Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. Other larval rearings obtained blastobasid adults from the living bark tissue of the persimmon, Diospyros kaki Thunberg. This study attempts to identify these reared specimens and to enhance the host-plant records of Blastobasidae. DNA barcoding and morphological observation reveal that four of the five moths reared from Citrus fruits are Lateantenna inana (Butler, 1881) n. comb., a newly recorded blastobasid species from Japan, and herein transferred from Blastobasis Zeller, 1855. Molecular and morphological studies further identify the species whose larvae attacked bark of D. kaki and fruits ofCitrus as L. decolor (Meyrick, 1907). New host records of L. inana and L. decolor are reported along with distributional ranges of the two species. In addition, Lateantenna scotia Turner, 1947 n. comb. is herein also transferred from Blastobasis.
Earias roseoviridis Sugi, 1982 is sometimes considered a synonym of E. roseifera Butler, 1881 or possibly a subspecies of E. roseifera because these taxa are morphologically very similar while their taxonomic relationship is unclear. Therefore, we performed molecular and morphological studies to clarify their taxonomic relationship. We found that E. roseifera and E. roseoviridis are distinguishable by standard DNA barcoding of mtCOI and a 1.8% average sequence difference is recognized between them. By the DNA barcoding, we also noticed for the first time that their distributions overlap in the Tokara Island group, Japan and this suggests that they are not different subspecies of the same species. We consider them as two distinct species for the moment based on the following three facts. 1: Such a relatively low percentage of pairwise distance of the DNA barcoding is often observable in Noctuidae. 2: Both taxa are clearly distinguishable by their larval morphology. 3: By the detailed observation of the adults, we established that they could be separated by the coloration of the antennae and of the scales near the eyes on the clypeus. As it is difficult to identify specimens from the Tokara Island group, Japan by morphology only, hybridization may happen between them in the contact area of the two taxa. Further molecular research based on nuclear genes will be necessary to clarify the hybridization.
Sixty-nine Gelechioidea species belonging to 37 genera in 10 families collected in Amami-Ōshima Island are reported. Forty-four species in 7 families are identified to species level. Among them, 25 species are newly recorded from Amami-Ōshima Island, and one species is new to Japan.
Seasonal （spring and summer forms） and sexual differences in the reflectance and scent scale substances of the wings of the green-veined white butterfly, Pieris napi japonica （the Japanese subspecies） were examined by scanning electron microscopy （SEM）, spectrophotometry, and gas chromatography. SEM observations revealed that the white scales of the dorsal and ventral wings of spring form butterflies of both sexes had beads that presumably absorb predominantly ultraviolet （UV） light. However, in the summer form, only the white scales of males had beads, whereas the white scales of females lacked beads. No seasonal differences were observed in the UV reflectance of male dorsal wings. In contrast, the UV reflectance of summer form female wings was higher than that of spring form female wings. Scent scales （androconial scales） were observed only on the dorsal wings of the male spring and summer forms. The scent scale substances from male wings of both seasonal forms were identified as citral and linalool. The total amount of these substances was four times larger in summer form males than in spring form males.