This study investigates the difference in eye movement patterns of beginner-level Japanese English as a foreign language (EFL) learners and intermediate-level Japanese EFL learners while reading passages. Eye movements of 52 A1 Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) level students (aged 15-16 years) and 15 B1 CEFR level students (aged 18-23 years) were recorded as they read three passages. A1 level students' average fixation duration was longer, and their average total fixation counts were more than that of B1 level students. Other eye-tracking measures were also used in the areas of interest (AOI). Although both the A1 level students' average first fixation duration and visit duration were longer than the B1 level students', their average visit counts were not different from their counterparts. It showed statistically that the intermediate level students re-read words as many times as beginner-level students. These results are discussed while considering the cognitive processes.
To investigate similarities and differences between native and nonnative lexical processing, lexical decision and naming performance of 333 English words for Japanese university students were compared with those for native English speakers in the English Lexicon Project (Balota et al., 2007). Both lexical decision and naming performance significantly correlated between Japanese learners and native speakers. Several variables that significantly correlated with lexical decision and naming speed for both Japanese learners and native speakers were found. Notable differences between learners and native speakers were found. First, for Japanese learners, lexical decision was faster than naming. Second, Japanese learners produced errors affected by the knowledge of romaji and errors that do not conform to English spelling-sound correspondence patterns. Implications for second/foreign language lexical processing research and English language education in Japan are discussed.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of creating multiple-choice questions for vocabulary learning. Learners were given the task of selecting words with which they were not familiar from a textbook and creating multiple-choice questions with those words as the correct answers. To ascertain vocabulary learning, the method's efficacy was assessed by comparing vocabulary test scores and analyzing learners' feedback. The results of the analysis revealed that the group employing the proposed vocabulary learning method had higher vocabulary test scores than the group using the conventional vocabulary learning method. Furthermore, the evaluation of learners' comments indicated that the process of thinking about the multiple-choice questions contributed to vocabulary retention. Additionally, learners were able to consider the differences in meaning between synonyms and antonyms.
This article deals with the mechanism of English learning based on the theory of neuropsycholinguistics, introducing classroom activities in order to examine if they could support the theory. In the applied linguistics field, it has been believed for a long while that input comes first, and then output, as is apparent from Krashen's Input Hypothesis. Recent studies of brain function, however, have shown that even before input activities such as linguistic/extra-linguistic information processing have already been activated through synchronization by predicting what comes next. If it is the case with what is happening in/before the process of listening, it is quite significant to take it into consideration in teaching, especially in the early language development stage, such as in kinder garden/primary school. It is hoped the findings in three different types of classroom activities could support the theory.
The border was closed to limit the further spread of coronavirus; travel restrictions are in place worldwide in 2021. It catapulted the virtual study abroad program to the forefront. With the rise of virtual learning alternatives, students can study abroad during the Covid-19 pandemic. International Virtual Study Abroad is now gaining popularity as a new approach to providing international experiences to Japanese students. This study analyzes the reports of the virtual study in 2021 and the reports of study abroad in 2019 used by the software called KH Coder. We conclude that the quality of English education is equal, and the effect of the experience of the Short Summer Program is almost the same. Only cultural education is not enough when students take the virtual study abroad program. Students cannot feel and learn “culture” itself virtually. As a result, building a blended educational program both virtual study with domestic support is one solution for the better results possible for students.