This paper presents the characteristics of the life-style and the sense of values of the Indian immigrant and the manner in which these develop and transform across generations. First, using previous studies, I survey the history of South Asian immigrants, their religion Hinduism, and their identity. Then, from research conducted on the Malayali community (people from Kerala, South India) in Oxford, I describe their characteristics, life-style and sense of values across generations. Lastly, I discuss a novel written by a Malayali immigrant. The following points are presented in conclusion. First, Malayalis place more importance on regional culture and education than religion and caste. Second, a new tradition that is non-existent in Kerala has been created by them in Britain. Third, owing to multi identities, there is a difference between an "ideal Malayali" and his/her real behavior patterns. Forth, the immigrant culture surpasses the trends of the native culture, and this evident in the use of English language, weakening of caste consciousness, and regeneration of tradition. Lastly, since the life style of the Indian immigrant is influenced by the country (Kerala), the foreign culture (British culture), and the culture of the immigrant community (Malayali community in Britain), cultural differences are bound to arise across generations.
The purpose of this study is to reveal how the garden was positioned in a life of a family in the home management books published in Meiji Era. For the purpose of analysis, the home management books were divided into three categories; traditional home management books, translated books from the Western culture, and textbooks authorized by the Ministry of Education. Various results were observed among the three categories. While there were almost no descriptions on the garden in the traditional home management books and the translated ones, most textbooks had a chapter about the garden that described not only the Japanese-style garden but also Western-style ones. In those textbooks, the garden was treated as a place for a family to take a walk or play together. Also, books that were published later in the era recommended a housewife to plant flower seeds and raise vegetables with her children and elderly. These findings showed that the home management books started to treat the garden in the second half of the Meiji Era, when the concept of "home" spread and the new middle class increased.
First of all, the present study organized the basic environment plan that promoted the citizens' participation and cooperation, secondarily wrestles with regional environmental problems by the activity of CBO and the citizens to promote the plan, and in the third, considered what problems there were in the community development. Some organizations were established for a different purpose and were integrated afterwards. The difference will be caused in several years among members, and the number of members has decreased consequentially. However, to solve regional environmental problems, the plan was not only promoted but also appropriately accepted the demand for the regional community. As a result, the activity was made joint, it was possible to contribute to the activation of downtown, and there was a positive effect in the community building.
The colonies of squatter settlements in Southeast Asia symbolize the nagging problem of poverty in these big cities. Countless researches have been undertaken on the subject, yet not much in the provincial towns where domicile exists in the form of "free rent (with owner's consent) settlement problem". This paper is a case study of how townspeople without a place to live survive, diskarte, utilizing the notion of pity, kalo-oy, in order to be given a land space to build their shacks in a town in Western Visayas, Philippines. The verbal contract between the supposed renter and the landowner in a dyadic relationship often times create anxiety on the part of the renter as the landowner might his/her mind and drive the renter anytime. This study hopes to clarify how local socio-economic differences are reproduced in the way landless townsmen survive to secure their living spaces.
Yamakoshi region of Nagaoka-city is a famous for breeding Nishikigoi and has beautiful landscapes of pond terraces. This study investigated the comparison of rice terraces and pond terraces. Objective (1.) process of changing rice production to breeding NIshikigoi (2.) differences of structures (3.) changing the landscape. (1.) A process of changing: Change by turning small pond into large ones, because of being constructed by hand at the beginning. Breeding Nishikigoi is a high-risk business. Large size rice terraces were kept efficient by the use of machines during rice farming. (2) Differences of structures: Ponds are deeper than rice terraces and have gradual inside walls. Ponds have wide field side passes, and shapes on the insides are rounded for Nishikigoi to swim easily. (3) Changing of Landscape: Many ponds are characteristic of the landscape. Pond terraces make water landscapes without vegetation in the summertime. Deep shaped ponds' edges makes for an expressive snow landscape. Conclusion: Most of the landscapes in this area are harmonious with each other, by changing to pond terraces from rice terraces did not resist the natural landform and symbiosis with the environment. In this case showing the way to landscaping in mountainous farming villages in part of Japan's future.
The purpose of this article is to examine the theoretical scope of Bruno Latour's works with the aim of clarifying the "anthropology of modernity," which has until now positively contributed to the expansion of the field and the reconstruction of the description method. The book We Have Never Been Modern widens the theoretical perspective in the background of the author's experimental study in the social sciences-anthropology of science and sociology of science. Further, after this article presents the outline of the book, the discussion focuses on the concept of the "world" to support Latour's modern ages theory and the description method. In his book, Latour describes our world as the original first world, where humans and material things coexist. The approach by which such descriptions is referred to is "actor-network theory" (henceforth, ANT). This approach symmetrically treats an actor with an agency and the human and material world as equal; it also discusses their interaction from this point of view. ANT has been criticized for various reasons. However, lifology and material culture research constitute an intimate aspect of ANT. Therefore, this article discusses the production aspect from the perspective of lifology and material culture research.