In this paper, I will discuss the Catholic fiesta in San Martin Huamelulpan, a 'Mixtec' village located in the State of Oaxaca, Mexico, focusing on the relationship between the rural villagers and urban migrants who have left the village. In San Martin, migration on a full scale started in the mid-1930's when the government's policy to modernize and industrialize the nation aggravated the economic imbalance between the urban and rural areas. The relationship between the rural villagers and urban migrants have various aspects. In this study, I will particularly discuss the fiesta of "Preciosa Sangre de Cristo (Precious Blood of Christ)." Many urban migrants participate, and some of them have recently been actively responsible for making the fiesta possible. Starting with a monograph on how the urban migrants relate to those who remain in the village for this occasion, I will discuss the reasons why those rural villagers accept the migrants as chiefs of the ritual and why those migrants desire so strongly to participate in the fiesta and to assume its burdensome financial responsibilities.
In the north side of the fine old city of Kawagoe, situated in Saitama prefecture, there is a cheap cheap sweets makers alley. They say that the first one of sweets makers came there in the end of Edo era, and before the 2nd World War, about 60 of such sweets makers operated in the narrow alley as the largest suppliers of cheap sweets in the region. The author has written some reports on their life history in the last 10 years. And this report is a part of such sociological studies. In this report, his main point of issue is the followings: 1) this system of the makers were one of a typical house-hold industry. 2) Even if there would not have happened the second world war, the system would have been crashed by the large makers which became to have a new system of mass-production and mass-consumption. 3) The makers in the alley before the second world war has been clearly different from them after the second world war. Some of the latter ones are not real sweets makers, but only half retailers for the people who come to see the sight of the famous historial "Cheap Sweets Makers Alley in Kawagoe". 4) However, now that the alley remains even now, we must recognize the power of the makers cooperation which originate from their professional and blood relations. The author thinks that the factor # 2 and # 4 are the most important keys of the history of the alley.
The purpose of this study is to shed a light to the housing improvement movements initiated by the Seikatsukaizen-Domeikai, the Ministry of Education's outer organization and a semi-governmental office and the persons who were actively involved in the movements as members of the organization. The movements were active during the periods between the Taisho and the Early Showa Eras. The results are as follows: 1. The Fourth Division of the Ministry of Education which was newly establised in 1919 held the Seikatsukaizen Exhibition and the Seikatsukaizen Workshops. They were the Division's first social education activities and the Seikatsukaizen-Domeikai was established to support them in 1920. 2. The major founding members of the Seikatsukaizen-Domeikai were Mr. Kaju Norisugi, Director of the Fourth Division of the Ministry of Education and Mr. Kentaro Tanahashi, Director of the Tokyo Educational Museum. Of the two it is speculated that the latter was actually involved in the preparation for establishing the Domeikai organization. 3. Because of the need for financial supports from profit organizations in order pursue its activities, the Domeikai changed its original function into a more realistic one. 4. The board of directors included people of a large variety of professions. Among them were government officials, members of the Diet, company executives and educators.
The purpose of this paper is to explore how people with upper limb disabilities suffered from thalidomide tablet adapt to physical environments and carry on independent lifestyle in Sweden. I obtained 9 persons through EX-Center as subjects and had interviews with them. The contents of interviews were as following; personal data, life histories including training in their childhood, housing history to grasp their backgrounds, present conditions of adaptations at home, behaviors of daily activities at home. Analyzing their each behaviors, their characteristic measures for independence were classified in 3 types. The first type is to manage some behaviors with their feet, instead of hands. The second one is to introduce technical aid system to make housing environments to adapt to their physical conditions. The third one is to introduce personal support services. It becomes clear that use of above-mentioned measures were affected by their experiences, surviving their life histories.
This paper is about a life history of the most famous drummer in the festival, Kokura Gion Daiko. It is the first step in later examining the relationship between an individual and society. The present study analizes his own personal perspective, as well as his wife's perspective about him in next point. 1) Differences in their perspectives This point is shown by contrasting them. The finding includes that mass communication made a particular image of the cinema 'Muhomatsu no issyo', he took on this image of Muhomatsu, expressing it through himself and making it reality. It is the real process of creating Folklore in modern urban area. Individuals reflect society, which is shown by a life history.