People in a indigenous (Zapotec) village in the Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico which I have studied about, call both annual events which they hold in the village and parties in their houses after a rite of passage, "fiesta". Compadrazgo is a ritual kinship system. It affects the mutual invitations to "fiestas", human relationships and their lives. Many of prior researches of the system have focused to the selection and the role of compadres. They insist that its function is starting or reinforcement of connection with an insider/outsider of the community, and with one of superior/equal social position. However, I will focus to the norms of compadrazgo. Resulting from my research of the difference of the discourse and the usage of the norms of compadrazgo in "fiestas", I find out how people here construct the norms of compadrazgo through the usage of them. They allow the absence of the compadre or his spouse in the "fiestas". And In order to reduce the costs of "fiestas", some villagers unite several "fiestas" into one occasion or integrate several couples of compadres into one couple, while some villagers don't follow the norms of compadrazgo.
This paper aims to analyze the acculturation of new settlers in Chichi-jima island, Ogasawara village. This study mainly handles the cases of new subsistence held by the new settlers in Chichi-jima island. In Japan, many islands have a problem of decrease in population. But on the other hand, some islands have increase of population due to the I-turn phenomenon. These cases are estimated that it will still increase in Japan. So, I picked up Chichi-jima island, Ogasawara village because this island is consisted by many inhabitants who are not born and raised in this island. They are called "shintoumin". Shintoumin has a character of "Life-style emigrants" when they settled in this island. But, many shintoumin doesn't stay in the island more than 3 years. In this paper I called this Phenomenon "3 years wall". Shintoumin who stays in long period caused acculturation of local society, especially among shintoumin through subsistence which are new to the island. I found out that there is a social capital among shintoumin. For example, there is a tendency of not to interrupt people who are going to start a new subsistence in the island. Shintoumin's are using this social capital cleverly and they are "cultivating" this island, as a result new characters of the island are made.