Ridding of vermin is a serious problem in the countryside across Japan. The number of vermin damaging agriculture or economy is still increasing but the population of hunter is decreasing and aging. This is because ridding of vermin is physically and economically demanding and it is difficult to live solely on it. To solve these problems, this study focuses on the factor of pleasure in ridding of vermin. According to the research conducted on two hunters in Fukuchiyama city, Kyoto, the factor of pleasure mainly lies in the part of making tools or developing better ways to catch vermin, not so much in their meat. These two hunters have their main source of income other than hunting animals; one engages in agriculture and the other is a metal worker. Both of them say hunting vermin is a serious problem since their work in farm or factory is delayed because they rid vermin almost every day in the hunting season. Nevertheless they can continue the activity because they find some amusement in it. The factor of pleasure should be taken over to the next generation to solve aging problem and to reduce the hardness of this activity for hunters.
Nowadays, media frequently focuses on the expansion of poverty among youth in Japan. Usually the conclusion is that this happens because of the collapse of conventional bonds like with the family, local communities, etc. One of the solutions for this problem is to create an informal support association to substitute for conventional systems. This article's main focus is the practice of young people who are managing a "hip hop and street wear" shop at a provincial city. These persons create informal associations called "crew" based on their knowledge of the hip hop culture and by doing that they help each other. The members of the crews are united strongly in specific ways like tattoos. Besides crews, they create another community. Inside of this community, they visit their friend's shop and spend a lot of money. They usually do this practice mutually to circulate money. In previous studies like Hebdige (1979), they described youth subculture as resistance to the dominant culture. However, this paper will argue how some young people manage their life within society with using their subculture skill set.
The Home Kitchen of Japan had made remarkable progress according to the considerable changes of the Japanese home life in the modern times. Most of the precedent studies have shown the basic examples of its changes and ascertained direction of the changes toward the modernization. However, these studies could not reach to a level of clarifying detailed aspects and appearances of modernizing the home kitchen. Here at this point, this study has more specific purpose to attempt making clear the modernization of the kitchen described in the authorized textbooks published from the Meiji period to the early Showa period. The authorized textbooks on domestic science for girls' high school are the most profitable historic records for this study, containing descriptions about the kitchen in the form of both texts and figures. In particular, this paper examines the significance and the subjects of the descriptions about the home kitchen in the textbooks. As a result, the three concepts of 'hygiene', 'efficiency', and 'Ritsudo-Shiki' (standing work style) are raised as the principles of the modernization of the kitchen.
Glutinous rice food is usually used as an offering or a gift-giving in annual festivals and rites of passage in the rural areas of Jiangnan (south of the Yangtze River) . In terms of glutinous rice food served in the rites of marriage, it is mainly divided into the following three purposes: (1) ancestors oblation, (2) gift-giving between the two families of the bride and groom, (3) gift-giving among relatives, friends and members of a regional community. Such local customs as offerings and gift-giving with glutinous rice food have been succeeded from one generation to another traditionally and thus have become an integral part of the local culture and life. In this paper, attempt is made to focus on Village D, Guli Town, Jiangnan, as an example, and to clarify the glutinous rice food culture in the rural rites of marriage. Then analysis is made to the cultural and social functions particularly from the view point of how to build up their human relations through the exchange behavior of glutinous rice food in each process of gift-giving, gift acceptance and gift return.
This article considers the establishment and transformation of crematories in Meiji-era Tokyo through analysis of crematory locations, regulations, and drawings. In the first half of the Meiji period, crematories in Tokyo were not only the sites of personal and family ritual observances, but they also gradually came to be public urban spaces restricted by regulations directed at urban hygiene. Specific changes included: 1. The perception of crematories changed from a viewpoint of crematories as harmful institutions to an acknowledgement of crematories as facilities for urban hygiene. At the same time, crematories became carefully regulated through laws concerning air quality, and the location and maximum number of facilities and cremation furnaces. 2. While the Tokyo Urban Improvement Plan relocated the eastern Tokyo crematories in Machiya and Ogishinden somewhat beyond the old Edo city limits (shubikisen), the 3 west side crematories in Eirigaya, Yoyogi, and Ochiai remained unchanged from the latter half of the Edo period. 3. The architectural form of the crematories changed from wood and plaster construction (mokuzo nuriya-zukuri) to brick construction (renga-zukuri), and the installation of chimneys, smoke control (recombustion) equipment, and excretions incineration facilities came to be required.
In this paper, it was clarified that "Inugami (犬神)" is existing still now with the consideration of discrimination in Hata (幡多) district, Kochi Prefecture from the fieldwork. "Inugami" has changed intimately to the slander without grounds that stagnate internally individual. It is assumed that such a change had arisen with the flow in the age, and shows the necessity of continuous Tsukimono research with the attention of individuality. Moreover, articles of these topics were paid attention after the World War 2, it is clarified that information about "Inugami" having been frequently seen in Kochi Prefecture. Also, from the field data and the newspaper articles in this area, it is assumed that talking about "Inugami" decreased in about the 1960s. It is shown that marriage changed at this time from the synchronic articles. In conclusion, "sending information" for losing superstitions changed and made to inside tsukimonosuji. And it is necessary to consider another way of media and articles.
Caihe Second Elementary School, a public school of in Hangzhou city of Zhejiang province in China, has shown excellent performance at practicing Chinese tea art education for students as a part of after-school activities Caihe Second Elementary School encourages. For example, a tea art team of the school performed tea art at Tea Expo (joint hosting of Shizuoka prefecture of Japan and Zhejiang province of China) held at Hangzhou City in June 2012. In this paper, the author figured out significance of Chinese tea art in Chinese society by discussing "why elementary students learn Chinese tea art" through observation on Chinese tea art education at Caihe Second Elementary School and interview with persons involved.