This study analyzed autobiographies of three handicapped women. The following points will be discussed: (1) Universal problems in Life Histories of the handicapped. (2) Subjective construction of social reality by the handicapped. (3) Significance and possibility of Culture of the handicapped. The finding includes that there were characteristic common to turnning points-medical treatment, rihabilitation, education, independence living and so forth-in their life, and I find that they constructed subjective social reality in turnning points of their life histories and reformed self definition.
In this paper, I will explain the process of the creation of new festival, focusing on "Okitama Shrine Shimenawa Honobiki" in Futami-cho Mie-prefecture. This festival was created in 1985 by the community. In this festival, the Shimenawa (a Shinto straw festoon) of Okitama Shrine is carried by the people under the protection of Okitama Shrine in a festive mood. First of all, I will start with the analysis of the festival itself and indicate some motifs in its course. Next I will consider the creating process of this festival. And these motifs are indicated in the creating process. They offer the key to an understanding of a way of members' thinking. The assumption in this paper is as follows: there is the "usual" world in the creating process of the "unusual" world, festival. Thus the creating process is more important than the fact of "created". We have to consider our trivial day of life. Indeed our everyday life is a matter of course, but it is a matter of great importance to us.
This paper discusses the writing acts in everyday life and describes how the practice of writing has been done and how the community of writing has been created through the movement of writing "Fudangi", founded and led by Yoshio Hashimoto in Hachioji, Tokyo since 1968. He had promoted and encouraged ordinary people to write "Fudangi" which means autobiography and informal essay, and publish the books by themselves. The first decade of the movement 1968-1977 is focused in order to explore Hashimoto's thought of writing and the community of writing produced by letters among them.
The pilgrimage today tends to be discussed as a sightseeing, because of such external changes as the decline of the pilgrimage wearing white uniforms on foot and the increasing number of pilgrimage tours planned by travel agencies. This discussion seems to come from the perspective seeing a pilgrimage as a religion or as a sightseeing. But on the research of some pilgrims today, it can be said that their inner thoughts are so complex that we can't consider the pilgrimage today simply as a religion or as a sightseeing. Therefore the author thinks when we comprehend the pilgrimage today, we should not discuss the pilgrimage is a religion or as a sightseeing, but focus on the details of the pilgrimage including the participants' internal activity and their life. In this paper, focusing on the "Pilgrimage-tour to the thirty-six Fudo temples in the Kanto region", the author will present some cases gathered by participant observation and interviews held to its participants to describe the actual condition of the pilgrimage today and the life and motivation of the participants. Finally the author concludes that the pilgrims' inner thoughts are involved with many factors, so that the pilgrimage today makes their life meaningful.
The purpose of this thesis is to clarify one side of Japan in modern times by analyzing methods of body fitness. First of all, I study the background of the time when various body fitness methods were very popular among people. Secondly, I pick up three of the fitness methods-the Okada method (Okadashiki Seizahou), the Kawai method (Kawaishiki kyoukenjyutsu), the Nishi method (Nishishiki kyoukenjyutsu) -and study the differences in the theories and fully exercised bodies of each method. And lastly, from the comparison with physical education, I examine the process that how the modernization of their bodies spread among people in Japan.
The old tale was the most familiar entertainment to children before existing a television and radio, therefore, it was composed of an daily conversation to listen easily for children. The old tale that had a condition of a daily life was based on a local region, and consequently, constructional differences in the local region should strongly reflect the old tale. However, constructional differences were not reflected it in order to represent a place where the leading character appeared. Therefore, this research examined words of house constructions appearing in the old tale, and examined meaning of house constructions in the old tale.
Our family life has been formed typically by the integration of various behaviour. Life style is known to change necessarily due to family organization, growth and aging of family members and so on. In the change in family style at the formative years of surburbs in Tokyo since early Showa era, the "Yamanote" life style (house with garden, separation between living and working, role allotment in man and women, small family), which is one of the present typical life style, is assumed to be formed from the choice at each time. Based on the above assumption, interview survey was performed to families which live continuoisly at the "Yamanote" residential area in Tokyo since early Showa era. The detailed evolution of space formation at family circle, westanization of house and life style, establishment of privacy in the family life is shown from the change in houses and family life. The case study of the change in family life and the evolution of rebuilding and extension of houses was also described. It is proved that the required life style in the change of living since early Showa era forms the present "Yamanoate" life style.
What constitutes an ideal father is now a current topic. I decided to research how the image of fathers and their role in child care has changed. I examined articles and their titles from issues of "My Baby" magazines from 1973-1997. I classified these articles under 3 catagories: l.Role of the Father; 2.Child Care Role; and 3.Questionaries on the Image of Fathers. I examined the fluxation in the number of articles, photographs and comic strips on these topics during the 25 year period. From 1973 to 1975, articles on the role of the father emphasized paternal authority; but from 1976 there was a shift in the focus of the articles from paternal authority to paternal Child Care. From the 1980' photographs began to accompany the articles and in the 1990's comic strips were added. It may be said from my analysis of these magazines that the role of the average father's contribution is reflected in these articles. The father's image has changed from the role of an authority figure to the role of a friend for the child.
The influence of visual effect on palatable appeal has been widely admitted. As the first attempt of scientific approach to examine this effect, the following experiments were conducted; (1) 16 femele college students were asked to "arrange the dish" on a white paper plate, using a set of wood blocks of various shapes, sizes, and colors as substitution for actual food items. The size of the plates and the contents of the block sets were the same for all 16 students. They were also asked to give a written description as well as a sketch of the dish they intended to serve. (2) Over 150 femele college students were shown the color prints of the above 16 plates and asked to i) describe what they guessed each of the 16 plates was, ii) rank them in order of "tasty apperance", and iii) choose the most and the least attractive plate, and give their reasons. Findings: Two factors were found common among the responses to the dishes which ranked high in "tasty appearance". They are; (1) the "dishes" giving exact image of real foods; the girls could easily recognize the intention of those who "arrenged" the "dishes", and (2) the dishes well-balanced in various aspects, such as the combination of colors, foods, as well as the proportion of the blocks to the size of the plate.