It is difficult to categorize indie musicians’ activities as either a job or a hobby. Nowadays, indie musicians are rational and economically independent due to technological improvements in musical equipment and the Internet, which have individualized and de-localized musical activity. Indie musicians based in the “Livehouse” (a Japanese small music venue) sometimes judged as irrational actors, and Livehouse has been criticized as a closed space where performers are exploited by a ticket quota. However, such criticism is based on values of the market economy. My aim is to overcome the limitation of these biased criticism by analyzing the face-to-face interactions among people gathered in a Livehouse called “Heaven”. For that, the present paper demonstrates that even though this venue relies on market exchange to profit from customers, the core customers, known as “regulars”, use “Heaven” as a “hangout”. These regulars interact and mutually aid each other without using money and demonstrate their respect towards the music through money. Here we can find the bricolage of market exchange and gift exchange that transforms “Heaven” to a convivial place.
This research explores the use of Cantilever chairs as seen in Japanese films between 1945 and 1952. These chairs were used in 19 out of 107 selected films. Several conclusions may be drawn from a comparison of the types of chairs and the scenes in which they were used in, in their respective films during World War II: 1) Two films in 1946 and 1947 depict scenes featuring Cantilever chairs in pre-war and wartime periods. 2) One may conjecture that the Cantilever chairs used in films after 1947 ware manufactured after the war; however, bamboo plywood chairs emulating pre-war design appeared more frequently than expected in post-war films. 3) When compared to films from the pre-war period, the chairs are mostly depicted in scenes within commercial establishments, especially downtown entertainment venues such as cabaret clubs and dance halls. There is, however, just one instance of the use of Cantilever chairs in wealthy family’s private residence. 4) The use of Cantilever chairs in films reached its peak in 1949 and subsequently dwindled. From this information, we can surmise that the pre-war sense of modernism prevailed until around the 1950s.
The publication of university newspapers was suspended at universities in Japan in 1944. Newspapers were aggregated into the University Press, which was published by the University Press Corporation. At the time, the course of World War II had worsened for Japan, and students had to leave their institutions and mobilize for war. The University Press was published three times a month until the 58th, and final, issue on April 21, 1946. University teachers and graduates who were active participants in various fields wrote articles in the University Press. They were identified by their names and social positions, which were included in the issues. The University Press is a valuable historical source for understanding changes in the world of criticism, before and after the end of World War II, and for insights into the daily life of university students at that time.