The aim of this paper is to clarify on conflicts among women toward spiritual power in an Okinawan village, from a viewpoint of "discourses of individual" and "daily strategy". I used the method of participant observation and hearing based on lifeology and cultural anthropology including political anthropology. As a result, I found that the priestess system is an origin of conflicts, and lower-classed priestess became shamans to against upper-classed priestess which based on two opposite descents according to their folklore about formation of the village. For lower-classed priestesses, to become shaman is one of strategies to be freed from fixed priestess system and to transcend upper-classed priestesses by using their spiritual power. This means that shamanism has a function as an "antiauthority device" to deny, dissolve and deconstruct toward authority.
This study considers the accessibility and convenience of living spaces in Zenko-ji and Omote-sando. Through this documentation, flat entrances can be seen at stalls in the precincts of the temple, in the old shops in Daimon-cho and in the commercial facilities in Togo-cho. Because of the needs of the Nagano Olympics and Paralympics, ramps were set up at Zenko-ji, a national treasure. Flat access toitet facilities for handicapped persons were set up in the shopping district and also for the Art Paralympics and other events held in cooperation with the association of retail shops. These facilities were used by many different people, aged, handicapped and even healthy people. Therefore the town has been made accessible and "user friendly" for all people.
The purpose of this paper is to explain the phenomenon that people change the form of the sacred because of their faith. I will start this paper by describing how to "make" or "create" "Shimenawa" (a Shinto straw festoon) of Meotoiwa in Okitama Shrine by it's Ujiko. Ujiko are people under the protection of Okitama Shrine. In turn for divine fiver, they dedicate in various way. Simenawa is their offering. The style of this Shimenawa has been very flexible according to circumstances. Shimenawa is a mirror of the way of Ujiko members' thinking. Finally I will consider the meaning of the sacred in their dairy life.
The Edogawa apartment house, built in 1934 by the Dojunkai-Foundation, has unique spatial configurations as an urban housing block, where many households have been enjoyed to live through generation to generation. The purpose of this paper is to find out mainly spatial factors making residents possible to settle for long span in the same apartment block. This is a part of serial research operated by Ogawa's group since 1977. Distinctive character of this paper is to utilize all data collected through the past research, and analyzing them in focusing on the specific problems as follows; (1) how residents perceive common spaces as their own living territory, (2) how they organize their flats in order to correspond the change of family needs. The result are as following. (1) The courtyard configuration of the block and the existence of rich common rooms offer residents opportunities to activate individual lives and communal activities as well. (2) The rich variations of apartment plan, the existence of single person's rooms in the block, and the flexibility of interior space of flats made residents possible to organize and transform their apartments within the block, corresponding to changing family needs. Finally, another factor such as the cooperative management of the house could not be neglected.