It has been a long-established tradition to scatter soybeans in the bean-scattering ceremony on setsubun, the eve of the beginning of spring. However, recently in Hokkaido district, people use peanuts instead of soybeans in this ceremony. In order to investigate changes of manners and customs followed on setsubun, a survey was made throughout Japan by means of questionnaires. All of respondents in Hokkaido and about 80% in Tohoku district were shown to scatter peanuts. In other districts many respondents used soybeans and those who chose peanuts were minor. A change from soybeans to peanuts was estimated to occur earlier in Hokkaido than in Tohoku. Reasons of this change were discussed in connection with the characteristic style of indoor living in Hokkaido. A new trend was found to spread from Kinki to neighboring districts. On setsubun, many people there eat in silence futomaki whole, big vinegared rice rolled in dried laver, looking toward a lucky direction of the year and praying for good luck. The custom to eat as many beans as one's age on this day was shown to prevail throughout the country, but that to decorate fish heads on sprays to be less popular.
This case study examines the history and development of small housing units for at-risk youths. Hokkaido Katei Gakko ("Hokkaido Family School"), government sanctioned residential facility located in the northernmost area of Japan, was established in 1914 to create a home-like environment for youth rehabilitation. The "School" consists of about half a dozen small housing units each run by a married couple who provide care for as well as live with the at-risk teenager and pre-teen boys in the unit. Our analysis traces the long history of the school by studying the past building plans and interviewing staff members, past and present. Particular attention was paid to the units' architectural design and actual use. The buildings fulfill dual roles: as a family home for the couple (some have children) and as a dormitory. A balance has to be struck between securing privacy and providing supervision that facilitates resocialization, for example. Focusing on the buildings and its use provides a close and concrete look at how staff and youths interact in their daily life.
In this paper, I will discuss the change of social status of untouchable in south India, focusing on the life history of Kannan Peruvannan, a ritual artist known as teyyakkdran in north Kerala. He belongs to Vannan caste, which was considered as untouchable 50 years ago. Kannan Paruvanndn enjoyed higher status than his fellow Vannans for the following reasons; he (1) was a talented teyyakkaran, (2) was a skilled Ayurvedic doctor, and (3) was promoted by Kaldniketanam - a cultural organization, for popularizing teyyam and other folk arts. As an individual, Peruvannan was not very ambitious to attain popularity. However, his talent as a teyyam arrtist and his skill as an Ayurvedic doctor cannot be hidden for too long. His actions encouraged and instilled confidence in other young teyyakkarans. Peruvanndn's popularity brought him economic success. This rendered his family members with other job opportunities and none of them followed in his footsteps as a teyyam artist. He imposes old Hindou traditions on women in his family and also performs some Brahmancial rituals. But it cannot be said as sanskritization in true sense.
In the trends toward commercialization of housework, the trend toward commercialization of making clothes is the most remarkable and nowadays clothes are rarely home-made. We intend to show the changes in the contemporary culture of clothing lifestyle which are being caused by the rapid diffusion of ready-made clothes. We conducted the research on the knowledge of cloth names, priority items chosen in purchasing clothes, experience in the clothing lifestyle and so on, by sending out questionnaires and carrying out interviews. As a result of the research, we found out the fact that the knowledge of daughters' generation has become extremely lower than those of mothers' and grandmothers' generation. Furthermore it was found that the importance tends to be placed on the comfortableness to wear, materials and sewing performance by mothers' and grandmothers' generation as contrast to the appearance like the coordination and the brand by daughters' generation, and that each generation commonly tends to think much of the sense of the season and the quality regardless of the price. Based on the above-mentioned results and those obtained from the research on the present state of using the mail order system and on experience of clothing lifestyle, we tried to conduct the comprehensive study on the contemporary culture of clohthing lifestyle.