The object of this paper is to describe the life history of a farm youth who lived in Ibaraki Prefecture in the 1930's, especially with reference to a young men's association group. In order to accomplish this purpose, we examined the private diaries that one farm youth continued to keep in the 1930's. He was highly literate, and he recorded extensive qualitative information. According to his diaries, he did not want to become a member of a young men's association group, thinking that it was an association for idle fellows. But after becoming a member, he played an active part. A short course that he attended in Tokyo was especially of great significance for him. After that short course, he expected that he could revitalize his native province through a young men's association group. We discovered that young men's association groups worked as a medium of mutual coexistence for farm youths in the 1930's.
In order to clarify lifestyle features of wheelchair users affected by spinal injuries, the lifestyle behavior of seven (7) households of wheelchair users were investigated. Wheelchair users were able to perform daily tasks by themselves, owing to their specially-equipped homes. However, even if they were able to cope with basic living conditions by themselves, many of them felt restricted by their spinal injuries or secondary disorders; thus, circumstances, especially those involving excretion, should be carefully planned for. Meanwhile, household chores were difficult tasks for them and they felt they were poor at housework. Therefore, most of them tended to avoid doing such burdensome chores. In addition our evaluation clearly found that the extent of care which should be provided to a wheelchair user, especially in doing housework, differs between care-providers and care-takers. It can be said that the evaluation was influenced by how much the wheelchair users can take care of themselves, how serious the extent of the handicap is, and how experienced the care-providers are.
In this study, the relationship between the type of sleeping arrangement for couples and their marital relationship was discussed in connection with private space. The first procedure was to quantitatively examine the data (301 cases) which was obtained from questionnaire surveys. The second procedure was to qualitatively investigate 22 cases. Distinctive styles and requirements of dwelling or their marital relationship were examined for similar cases of sleeping arrangement. The results were as follows: 1) When couples have space and time for communication, their desire for private space appears to be reduced, but if it is lacking, private space is desired as shelter from trouble. 2) A master bedroom where intimate relations can be built up is important especially when children are being brought up.
Bobbed hair, which became a fashion among women in Spain in the 1920's, created a controversy over "femininity".In this paper, the representation of the "new women" or the women with bobbed hair, was analyzed through magazine advertisements. By doing so, the role that these women played in the consumer culture and its impact on women's culture were considered. First, models with bobbed hair, by being used in advertisements for new consumer goods, became symbols of the modernity of products. Second, models with bobbed hair projected an image of the new woman and a view of women's bodies, and thus played a role in transforming conventional "femininity". On the other hand, the representation of women with bobbed hair, which was incorporated into capitalist logic, also played the role of arousing women's desires, as a catalyst for consumer culture.
This paper is a discussion of the role of rituals performed for the benefit of Bamileke urban dwellers in their villages of origin in the Bamileke lands in the Western Province of Cameroon. The urbar Bamileke visit their home villages frequently, often to take part in these rituals, which are believed to be effective only when performed in the villages. This idea, that these rituals require a mystical force to be found only in villages, is a new one, and was developed in urban communities. Thus, the village is ar imagined "locality" that is opposed to the city in the conception of urban dwellers, and village rituals are occasions to visually confirm this conception. Kob (the ritual for purifying 'Bad Death'), Fog (the ritual for determining which widow of a dead man may have been responsible for his death), and Ngu (the ritual for uncovering sorcery) were examined.
In this modern age, technologies have made rapid progress in many societies. With this progress, many technological goods have been introduced into our everyday lives. Recently, these technologies, especially information and communication technologies (ICT) innovate our lives: As soon as I get up, I turn on the PC and check the e-mail or website; I use my cellular phone in the train station; I access "google" when I want to research things in my office or at home; I write this paper on a word-processor (software), and so on. Without ICT, my lifestyle today would not be possible. But the relationship between ICT and our daily lives has been overlooked. Therefore, I will investigate this relationship in my paper. Perhaps when we continue using technological goods in our everyday lives, they become "domesticated" into our lives. That is, only domesticated technological goods can be found in our living space. Silverstone et al. argued for this media-technologies domestication process. Having been domesticated, technological goods have been innovated in our lives. However, with the domestication process, our daily lives have been reflected, or those processes have been indexical. Our research focuses on, with innovating PC and internet technology, the reciprocal processes of man-machine-interface, and changing our daily lives' acts and thoughts or our daily time and space.
In my paper, I would like to discuss how the way of sharing cooking amongst generations has affected the continuation of New Year's dishes. There are three groups in my samples. In the first group, the cooking is shared amongst three generations: grandmothers, mothers and daughters. In the second group, the second generation is now cooking alone, having taken over the responsibility of the first generation. And in the third group, the second generation is cooking alone. My questionnaire survey found that the second generation of the first and the second group are more positive than those of the third group regarding the continuation of food culture. Many cases in the third group are reluctant to continue food culture or are wondering whether they should continue. The interview survey shows that those of the first group and the second group feel thankfulness toward the first generation and have a sense of responsibility to continue the family tradition of cooking, while those of the third group feel the burden of responsibility and are frustrated in the unfairness of family roles. My research reveals that the willingness to continue food culture is more affected by consciousness in family cooperation, intergenerational relations and the family norm, rather than simply by intergenerational cooperation in cooking.
The purpose of this study is the following; first is to examine the diet of the Prophet Muhammad (d. A.D. 632) in the cities of Mecca and Madma and also to examine food of the Bedouins in the early Islamic times. Second is to investigate how people of the Abbasids court regarded them in the 10^<th> century. The typical food eaten by the Prophet and his companions written in the Hadith (narrative relating deeds and utterances of the Prophet) included barley bread, milk-products, dates and a few vegetables, and occasional cooked dishes. As for the Bedouins, they used slaughtered cattle in order to gain honor and to humiliate enemy tribes. About three hundreds years later in the Abbasids dynasty, not only the celebrated al-khassa but also common people al-'amma began to despise Bedouins as eaters of reptiles such as snakes and lizards. In the Abbasid court's cookery book edited by al-WarrSq (in 10^<th> century) introduces five dishes of the Muhammad's food. These five dishes are also introduced in the books on dietetics written by al-Razi (d. A.D. 925 (935)) pointing out the attributes and faults of each food from point of view of bodily and spiritual well-being; the broth with vegetable (maraq) and potage with some grain and peas (harira) were for patients who had a fever or jaundice or cough or other such aliments. Dried meat (qadid) was eaten as a hors d'oeuvre with wine as digestive. Soup with crumbled bread (tharid) became famous nutritious dishes with many kinds of meat. Refined parched wheat or barley (sawiq) was eaten not only a nutritious in the hot season but also for preventing epidemic. There are two major reasons why these five dishes were introduced. The first is that for Muslims to follow the Prophet Muhammad's life and to eat his food has been considered to live up to the Muslim ideal. The second reason is that the Islamic medical scholarly ideas on dietetics had already been appreciated in the court.