This paper is the result of the fieldwork performed for several associations of people who joins "traditional" city festival. The purpose of investigation was, firstly, how the people operate the festival and reproduce its associations under the community changing, and secondly, to clarify the relationship among the individuals with various senses of values and the festival itself, community life and its communality. Attention was given specially to traditional norms inherited by the association and conflict attendant on replacement of their positions within the association, during the progress of the investigation. The conflict can be visualized as a problem involving membership and constructing identity of participants respectively under the difficulties to practice the festival. Then, the present condition of the association was considered from framework of "community of practice" having applying the Legitimate Peripheral Participation (LPP) theory and related researches for analysis. As a result, a) the character of " Wakasyu (main young members in the festival associations) identity" and its construction process, b) the aspect of conflict accompanying with replacement of a participants, c) the participant's selecting process and closing nature, d) the correlation of multilayer identity of each participant with the actual local life, e) the separation of the "afterimage of traditional local communality" among the membership and reality of the local life, etc. became clear. Moreover, the "future" of the festival in a turning point and its association of people was considered together with its problems and foresight.
Okubo district in Tokyo is well known as a place where many Asian people live and Japanese residents in Okubo district have been trying to find the way of living with them. However, they have found difficulties with knowing the lifestyle and the way of thinking of especially those who came from Southeast Asian countries mainly because of a historical lack of cultural and social interchanges. This paper tries to describe the occupational life of Thai immigrants living in Okubo district based on the interviews with the owners and employees of Thai restaurants. The fact revealed with the research is that they do not have a sense of community member in Okubo district and live with relatively weak and functional social ties. This is mainly because they regard their status in Japan as a mere temporary one. Their main purpose of living in Japan is to make a substantial amount of money for improving their future life in Thailand. However, at the same time some of them seems to develop a new lifestyle where come-and-go between Japan and Thailand becomes a foundation of their life design. Therefore, it can be said that understanding such a new identity of Thai immigrants is the first step for the successful cohabitation.
This study is to explore the living environments for people with intellectual disabilities and this paper is to report the results of case study on rehabilitative institution providing private room for all resident and unit care. The contents of this study are composed of 2 studies. The first one is interviews with staffs to grasp their disabilities, the conditions of ADL and other personal date of all resident. Second one is observant study to grasp the present conditions of daily lives of residents. From the results of those studies, it became clear following points. 1. They could establish their place to stay accordoing to their schedule of one day, centering their own unit in their daily lives. 2. They seemed to establish the fellow feeling to live in same unit and take part in housekeeping works. 3. Their schedules were uniformly and they could not be provided various alternatives to spend leisure time. 4. They could not have opportunities to go out their institution, so they could not realize their community lives.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the neighborhood centers which were built and approved as children's halls in Tokyo just after the War. The following points became clear in this examination. Although many public children's halls and children's centers in Tokyo have been built for after school children and many of them are under public management so far, the neighborhood centers were privately managed and performing activities not only for after school children but also for adults and infants in the local area. Moreover, they had the way of management for making response to requests of local residents and many local residents of all generations participated in various activities held at the centers. The active programs were planned in detail and many adults in the area joined in and did volunteer work for the children. Today we have about 489 public children's halls and children's centers in Tokyo Wards. Recently some of them are going to be privatized because of financial reasons. One may notice that the neighborhood centers built in the Showa 20s will be suggestive in some respects.