The matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization in-source decay (MALDI-ISD) of peptides and glycans was studied using an oxidizing chemical, 5-nitrosalicylic acid (5-NSA) as the matrix. The use of 5-NSA for the MALDI-ISD of peptides and glycans promoted fragmentation pathways involving “hydrogen-deficient” radical precursors. Hydrogen abstraction from peptides resulted in the production of a “hydrogen-deficient” peptide radical that contained a radical site on the amide nitrogen in the peptide backbone with subsequent radical-induced cleavage at the Cα–C bonds. Cleavage at the Cα–C bond leads to the production of an a•/x fragment pair and the radical a• ions then undergo further hydrogen abstraction to form a ions after Cα–C bond cleavage. Since the Pro residue does not contain a nitrogen-centered radical site, Cα–C bond cleavage does not occur at this site. Alternatively, the specific cleavage of CO−N bonds leads to a b•/y fragment pair at Xxx−Pro which occurs via hydrogen abstraction from the Cα−H in the Pro residue. In contrast, “hydrogen-deficient” glycan radicals were generated by hydrogen abstraction from hydroxyl groups in glycans. Both glycosidic and cross-ring cleavages occurred as the result of the degradation of “hydrogen-deficient” glycan radicals. Cross-ring cleavage ions are potentially useful in linkage analysis, one of the most critical steps in the characterization of glycans. Moreover, isobaric glycans could be distinguished by structure specific ISD ions, and the molar ratio of glycan isomers in a mixture can be estimated from their fragment ions abundance ratios. MALDI-ISD with 5-NSA could be a useful method for the sequencing of peptides including the location of post-translational modifications, identification and semi-quantitative analysis of mixtures of glycan isomers.
The structural characterization of copolymers by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) remains a challenging task, since their random comonomer distribution creates very complicated mass spectra. In this study, a high-resolution TOF mass spectrometer with a spiral ion trajectory was applied to the structural and compositional characterization of free radical copolymerized poly(methyl methacrylate-co-tert-butyl methacrylate), poly(MMA-co-tBMA)s in ethyl lactate acting as a chain transfer agent. Virtually complete peak assignments of the isobaric components within the poly(MMA-co-tBMA)s served to identify the end-group combinations and copolymer compositions of individual copolymer components, allowing the distributions of comonomer compositions and six types of end-group combinations to be evaluated.
Studies of clusters in condensed phase at atmospheric pressure are very important for understanding the properties and structures of liquids. Liquid-ionization (LPI) mass spectrometry is useful to study hydrogen-bonded clusters at the liquid surface and in a gas phase. An improved ion source connected to a tandem mass spectrometer provides detailed information about clusters. Mass spectra of pure ethanol (99.5%) observed by the first mass analyzer (Q1) showed neat ethanol cluster ions (C2H5OH)mH+ with m up to 10 and hydrate ions (C2H5OH)m(H2O)nH+ with m larger than 7 and n=1, such as those with m-n=8-1 and 9-1. When the flow rate of ethanol (liquid) was increased, large ethanol cluster ions with m larger than 25 were observed by the second mass analyzer (Q3). It is interesting to note that neat ethanol cluster ions are more abundant than corresponding (with the same m) hydrate ions (n=1), and major hydrate ions contain only one molecule of water. Results indicate that ion–molecule reactions occur between Q1 and Q3, because such mass spectra have never been observed by Q1. Various results indicate that neat ethanol clusters exist at the liquid surface and are ionized to give cluster ions.
The effect of solvent conditions, including pH, on product ion spectra obtained from precursor ions produced by electrospray ionization (ESI) was examined. Bovine carbonic anhydrase 2 was used as a model protein and the product ions generated by collision induced dissociation of the whole protein were measured under several different solvent conditions (pH 5.0, 3.7, and 0.1% HCOOH (pH 2.6)/MeCN (1/1)). The product ion spectra from precursor ions with the same charge number, the observed m/z values and the relative intensities of the product ions were similar. It therefore appears that the solvent conditions used have no effect on the product ion that is generated. On the other hand, different profiles of the product ion were obtained from precursor ions having different charge numbers. This indicates that the charge number of the precursor ion appears to be a major determinant of the product ion species and its relative intensity in product ion spectra of proteins.
Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, ASA) is the most popular non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. However, due to its action on cyclooxygenase and its acid nature, aspirin is associated with adverse gastrointestinal effects. In an effort to minimize these side effects, NO-donor and H2S-donor ASA co-drugs have been designed and tested. Their mass spectrometric behavior is now analyzed and reported. Positive ions were obtained by electrospray ionization involving protonation or alkali metal attachment. Their dissociation processes have been studied by collision induced dissociation in a triple quadrupole instrument. High mass accuracy measurements have been recorded on a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. The protonated molecules dissociate by an exclusive or largely prevailing path leading to acetyloxy-substituted benzoyl cation, namely an ASA unit. The process is reminiscent of the enzymatic hydrolysis, releasing intact ASA to a large extent. Only at higher collision energy does the formal ketene loss disrupt the ASA moiety. The gas phase chemistry of protonated ASA-releasing drugs develops along elementary dissociation steps analogous to the reactive processes in complex biological environments. This notion may provide a tool for preliminary testing of new compounds.
Once lipids are oxidized, various volatiles are produced by cleavage of the fatty acid side chain. Considering the variety of lipids present in the body, a large number of possible volatiles might originate from oxidized lipids. However, only specific volatiles such as aldehydes are exclusively examined in current studies, and there is no reported method for the exhaustive analysis of all volatiles. We developed a sensitive analytical method for the detection of all possible volatiles for multimarker profiling, applying a new extraction method called in-tube extraction. Oxidized phosphatidyl choline standards were prepared in vitro and analyzed in order to determine the potential variety of volatiles. Over 40 compounds, including alcohols, ketones, and furanones, were identified in addition to the aldehydes reported previously. Based on this result, we applied our analytical method to mouse plasma and identified 12 volatiles, including 1-octen-3-ol, which is correlated to disease states. To determine the volatile profile after oxidation, we oxidized plasma in vitro under various conditions and identified 27 volatiles, including 1-octen-3-ol and benzaldehyde. The generation capacity of each volatile was different. This method allows sensitive and exhaustive analysis of various volatiles in addition to aldehydes.
Collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments of adducts [M+R]− with negative atmospheric ions R− (O2−, HCO3− and COO−(COOH)) produced in NO3−-free discharge area in atmospheric pressure corona discharge ionization (APCDI) method were performed using aliphatic and aromatic compounds M. The [M+R]− adducts for individual R− fragmented to form deprotonated analytes [M−H]− as well as the specific product ions which also occurred in the CID of [M−H]−, independent of analytes with several different functional groups. The results obtained suggested that the specific product ions formed in the CID of [M+R]−, as well as CID of [M−H]−, are generated due to further fragmentation of the product ions [M−H]−. It was concluded, therefore, that CID of [M+R]− formed in NO3−-free discharge area can indirectly lead to the formation of the product ions originating from [M−H]−.
To determine the contents of candesartan in mouse plasma, and blood vessel and kidney sliced sections and also better understand its pharmacokinetics, we applied matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) and MALDI-imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) with the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode using a labeled-internal standard. The results of fundamental examinations showed that the slope of the resulting curves of candesartan in the plasma from the equation was 0.91 and the y-intercept was 0.02. Both intra- and inter-day accuracies (n=10) and the precision of candesartan in the plasma by MALDI-TOFMS with the SRM mode were in the range of 3.4 to 17.3% and 93.2%, respectively. The detection limit of candesartan in spiked plasma was 0.2 nmol/L. IMS analysis enabled us to clarify distinct spacial time-distribution images in sliced mouse blood vessel and kidney sections although it still needed to improve a protocol of quantification. Typical pharmacokinetic patterns of candesartan were obtained in the plasma and sliced kidney sections, but those in the blood vessel sections gradually increased 24 h after administration. MALDI-TOFMS and IMS with the SRM mode are powerful tools to identify the spacial distribution and traceability of candesartan in sliced blood vessel and tissue sections as well as in the plasma.
The potential of a novel derivatization reagent, trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA), in determining the number of OH groups in poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was investigated by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). The MALDI mass spectra of the products revealed peaks of sodiated derivative cations, whose shift by the respective increments, Δm/z: 96 × number of OH, allowed for the determination of the number of end functional groups with active hydrogens. In the present study, complete acylation of OH groups by TFAA proceeded rapidly, and only required mixing in acetonitrile solvent without purification. As a result, the number of OH end groups of PEG could be determined rapidly.
Identification of fibers for verification of their specific animal origin is necessary for maintaining quality and value in the clothing industry. In order to examine adulteration in animal fibers, there is a commercially accepted method of microscopy analysis. However, this method is subjective and time-consuming due to its reliance on an operator identifying magnified fibers from their scale image and other features. Therefore, alternative reliable identification methods are required. In this study, peptide analysis using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) is presented and used to distinguish between cashmere, wool, mohair, yak, camel, angora, and alpaca in untreated and treated fibers (dyed, chlorinated wool). Typical m/z values for each specific type of animal fiber were identified. Predictive models that could identify seven types of animal fibers as well as 50% blended samples were successfully constructed using multivariate analyses such as PCA and PLS regression. This technique is therefore extremely useful for complementing the conventional tests for detecting adulteration in animal fiber fabrics and clothing.
While de novo peptide sequencing is essential in many situations, it remains a difficult task. This is because peptide fragmentation results in complicated and often incomplete product ion spectra. In a previous study, we demonstrated that N-terminal charge derivatization with 4-amidinobenzoic acid (Aba) resulted in improved peptide fragmentation under low-energy CID conditions. However, even with this derivatization, some ambiguity exists, due to difficulties in discriminating between N- and C-terminal fragments. In this study, to specifically identify b-ions from complex product ion spectra, the differential 14N/15N-labeling of peptides was performed using Aba derivatization. 15N-Labeled Aba was synthesized in the form of a succinimide ester. Peptides were derivatized individually with 14N-Aba or 15N-Aba and analyzed by ESI-MS/MS using a linear ion trap-Orbitrap hybrid FTMS system. The N-terminal fragments (i.e., b-ions) were then identified based on m/z differences arising from isotope labeling. By comparing the spectra between 14N- and 15N-Aba derivatized peptides, b-ions could be successfully identified based on the m/z shifts, which provided reliable sequencing results for all of the peptides examined in this study. The method developed in this study allows the easy and reliable de novo sequencing of peptides, which is useful in peptidomics and proteomics studies.