Isotope analyses using mass spectrometers have been frequently utilized in the laboratories for the earth planetary science and other scientific and industrial fields. In order to conduct in-situ measurements of compositions and isotope ratios around planets and moons, mass spectrometers onboard spacecraft have also been developed. Ion and electron instruments on orbiters have provided much outputs for the space and planetary science since the early days and mass spectrometers on landers and rovers have recently performed isotope analyses on planetary bodies. We review spaceborne mass spectrometers, instrumentations, and observation results. Starting with spaceborne ion instruments to measure three distribution functions as well as mass for the space plasma physics, mass spectrometers have evolved to recent high-mass-resolution instruments for solar system exploration missions.
Air pollutants generate reactive oxygen species on lung surfaces. Here we report how hydroxyl radicals (·OH) injected on the surface of water react with SP-B1–25, a 25-residue polypeptide surrogate of human lung surfactant protein B. Our experiments consist of intersecting microjets of aqueous SP-B1–25 solutions with O3/O2/H2O/N2(g) gas streams that are photolyzed into ·OH(g) in situ by 266 nm laser nanosecond pulses. Surface-sensitive mass spectrometry enables us to monitor the prompt (<10 μs) and simultaneous formation of primary On-containing products/intermediates (n≤5) triggered by the reaction of ·OH with interfacial SP-B1–25. We found that O-atoms from both O3 and ·OH are incorporated into the reactive cysteine Cys8 and Cys11 and tryptophan Trp9 components of the hydrophobic N-terminus of SP-B1–25 that lies at the topmost layers of the air–liquid interface. Remarkably, these processes are initiated by ·OH additions rather than by H-atom abstractions from S–H, C–H, or N–H groups. By increasing the hydrophilicity of the N-terminus region of SP-B1–25, these transformations will impair its role as a surfactant.