Once items like batteries or fluorescent tube lights are no longer needed in the home, they are normally discarded separately as hazardous waste and then collected and transported away by the municipalities. However, many times, with regard to other toxic substances, such as paints and agricultural pesticides, there is no method for handling or treating due to the dangerous difficulties they pose for disposal. In addition, homeowners who end up with leftover paints or pesticides are confused about where to take them for safe processing. The treatment and processing technologies used by municipalities are not considered sufficient for handling these types of manufactured products that contain complicated mixtures of chemical substances.
In the West, on the other hand where there is now a strong sense of crisis concerning groundwater pollution, they have decided to prohibit these harmful substances from entering landfill streams. The products have been labeled Household Hazardous Wastes (hereafter referred to as HHW) and thorough control of these waste products is strictly the norm in these countries.
This paper presents the results of a survey on HHW from a report (K113023) put out by the research lab of Professor Matsutou at Hokkaido University. Based on this work, we consider what are the responsibilities that municipalities must adopt with regard to HHW processing and waste management in general.
There are a number of separate legislations within the Waste Management Act, which include the Waste Disposal and Public Cleaning Act and the Act for the Promotion of Effective Use of Resources under the Basic Act for the Establishment of a Recycling-Based Society. Under each of these Acts, an individual recycling Act has also been established, however the use of terminology does not always perfectly coincide. In particular, priorities given to the recycling process for disposing of plastics is not completely made clear. Although establishing a sound material-cycle society is the goal, the current laws are still lacking to make this possible.In order to realize the objective of creating a sound material-cycle society, manufacturers must take on the responsibility of developing recyclable products. There are also other issues that must be addressed, such as maximizing collection sites and storage plans.To implement an efficient system for recycling within the private sector, the local government is authorized to conduct an audit on the private sector so that regulations must be revised.
The Waste Management and Public Cleansing Law plays an important role in establishing a sound material-cycle society through its promotion of appropriate waste disposal within the legal system. The Law includes various regulations that affect waste treatment and disposal. A notable decrease in the incidences of illegal dumping recently shows that this law has been effectively applied. On the other hand, the regulation blocks sorting residual for the recycling of unsegregated construction and demolition wastes, the promotion of which has been a long outstanding issue. Guidelines for recycling of construction sludge can serve as a reference point in solving this issue. The most important thing is to raise the level of consciousness concerning what materials are in certain products.
In 2012, an amount of 12000 ton of sewage sludge from Aichi and other prefectures, along with organic residues from a number of food industries, were composted by an industrial waste treatment company called T. The resulting product was 6500 ton of fertilizer, which was derived from the sludge and then brought to agricultural areas in Tahara City. Neighboring farmers began to raise complaints to the local authorities in Tahara due to the bad odors. The case was investigated from the aspect of regulatory compliance. Although there were no violations found with regard to the treatment of industrial wastes like sewage sludge, there does remain a doubt as to whether this recycling of sewage sludge can be acknowledged as a genuine cyclical-use of resources. This paper reports the factual details of this particular case and discusses further possibilities for appropriate treatment of organic waste in general.
The Waste Management and Public Cleansing Act of Japan requires municipalities throughout the country to manage the disposal of their own domestic waste. However, there is a significant difference in population sizes among each of the municipalities, and there are also many small towns and villages not necessarily included in the scheme. This study examines the current status of domestic waste disposal carried out by small municipalities in rural areas and also discusses some of the issues they face due to their location. In the case study area of Nagano Prefecture we come to understand that some small municipalities cannot even afford to have an official full-time worker for the management of waste disposal. These small municipalities have been struggling to adjust to a growing need for more sophisticated and diversified waste disposal systems. Many municipalities have had to outsource services such as waste collection, intermediate treatment and final disposal to private entities or joint administrations. In particular, area-wide incineration has become common in more recent years, while final disposal is often entrusted to private landfill sites located outside the prefecture. Waste collection, intermediate treatment and final disposal are being carried out by other entities in order to minimize the level of involvement by municipalities, however this trend may be leading to a sense of vagueness regarding what the responsibilities actually are, as well as creating obstacles to waste reduction and recycling efforts. In recent years, waste disposal services have been greatly improved and made more sophisticated ; it is now necessary to reconsider how domestic waste disposal is being handled in these small municipalities.
To provide a relative viewpoint for this special issue's discussion on the regulatory framework for waste management in Japan, this paper provides a brief introduction to legal instruments employed in waste management in England. The basic law for waste management in England is the Environment Protection Act 1990. Similar to the situation in Japan, this law has been amended numerous times since its initial enactment and is a rather complicated piece of legislation to fully comprehend. The characteristic features of the legislation in England are the two-tier separation of Waste Collection Authority and Waste Disposal Authority, and the frequent use of economic instruments. Although the latter aims to reduce the externality caused by the former, the “predict and provide” mindset may still remain. This is not conducive to the promotion of “2Rs” (i.e. reduction and reuse), that are given a higher priority in the waste hierarchy principle.
This paper focuses on the smelting technologies at the Potosí Mine, which was the first successful venture in the industrialization of silver amalgamation during colonial Spanish rule. We demonstrate key technologies found in historical documents, from the perspective of scientific knowledge. In 1572, Francisco de Toledo, the fifth Spanish viceroy, introduced a new method of smelting silver ore, an amalgamation process involving the use of mercury with which he intended to propel the recovery of silver from tailings that had stockpiled around the Potosí mine during the traditional mining period. Recovery reached about 2 million pesos of silver reclaimed from the tailings. Following the application of his new method, a total of 2000 quinales of mercury was recycled annually from abandoned and contaminated soils during water-washing of the amalgamating products. As a result of Spanish colonization, various pollutants affected the area around Potosí In particular, soil contamination in the Pilcomayo River gives evidence of the lingering effects of Spanish colonization right up to modern times.