This article discusses vowel diachronic changes with an emphasis on Great Vowel Shift (GVS) in Early Modern English from the viewpoint of their internal mechanisms. The motivation of GVS is attested by Open Syllable Lengthening (OSL). The heart of OSL is the interrelationships among “height”, “tenseness” and “length”, as seen from the fact that short vowels in open syllables were not only lengthened but also lowered. The intricate interplay of the parameters is appropriately described by means of the feature “particle” presented by Schane (1984). Chapter 3 and 4 investigates particle analysis of GVS by Schane, pointing out the contradiction of the markedness arrangement to the symmetrical vowel system. I alternatively suggest its generalization on the basis of SPE's simplicity principle, on the ground that it displays the balancing of markedness at every stage in accordance with unmarked symmetry. My analysis is based on the combination of Schane's elementary particle and SPE's simplicity principle. It provides an explanation of “how” and “why” regarding GVS with a certain viewpoint “reciprocal change”.
It has often been argued that the basic linear order of a lexical hea and its complement is determined on the basis of the directionality of θ-role assignment by the head at D-Structure. Essentially assuming this idea, Kemenade(1987)considers the following fact in early English: Vs and As assign θ-role to the left and Ns and Ps to the right in OE, but these four categories all θ-mark to the right in ME. The present paper is an attempt to give an explanation to this fact within the GB framework. I make the following two claims. (i) Of all the lexical categories Ps first came to assign θ-role uniformly to the right in EME and their direction affected the directions of θ-role assignment by the other lexical categories. (ii) The first fixing of the direction of Ps'θ-marking is due to the fact that the functions of OE Case-endings were largely taken over by prepositions and word-order in EME.
Academic speech is said to be similar to academic writing. In order to ascertain the validity of this idea, the English used in oral presentations and published papers is analysed in this study with regard to syntax and lexis. Two paper-oral presentation pairs were used for this analysis. In each pair one oral presentation and one published paper with identical titles were produced by a single scientist. The frequency of finite and nonfinite clauses, nominalisations, passives, and conjuncts was calculated. A cluster analysis was made to determine the correlation between the oral presentations and the published papers in the light of the text categories of the LOB and London-Lund corpora. Examples taken from the oral presentations and the papers were contrasted. Lexical verbs were compared. As a result, significant differences have been found between the oral presentations and the published papers in terms of syntax and lexical verbs. The results indicate a shift of preference from finite clauses to nonfinite clauses and nominalisations in the change of mode from speech to writing.
The aim of this paper is to show that the verb-particle combination had already been found in OE with either literal or figurative meaning, but, owing to the persistent use of prefixes such as ge-, be-, and a-, it took a long time for the construction to be well established eventually in the thirteenth century. A discussion on the element order of the combination, especially in verse examples (§1 and §2) and a comparison between the two versions of the same text (§3 for GD(C) and (H), §4 for PsGlA and D, §5 for ChronA and E, and §7 for La3A and B) may give sufficient evidence for the early occurrences and the slow development of the construction.