Faculty development （FD） programs have been held all over Japan since the change to the postgraduate clinical training system in 2004. The programs, however, have not been well evaluated in Japan. The objective of our study was to elucidate the effectiveness of 2-day FD workshops at the University of the Ryukyus. We conducted a survey and test about clinical education involving 172 physicians of the University of the Ryukyus from October 2006 to March 2007. Of the total, 42 of them had participated in our FD workshop between 2003 and 2006, and 130 of them had not participated in it. The average follow-up period of the participant group was 24 months after workshops. The participant group （n＝42） had more knowledge of curriculum design and development, giving feedback, and educational techniques than the non-participants （n＝130）. The participant group also had a more enthusiastic attitude than the nonparticipants.
Our study suggests that the 2-day FD workshops at the University of the Ryukyus could be effective for nurturing knowledge and attitudes toward clinical education, but may have a limited effect on changes in practice and networking among physician instructors.
The Japanese Medical Specialty Board has been established with the collaboration of medical and medical care organizations. It ensures the quality of medical specialists and achieves accountability to the people by certifying medical specialists and authorizing training programs. Outcome-based education is characterized by an emphasis on the quality assurance of trained physicians. Therefore, the new medical specialty training system could be constructed through outcome-based education. I give a brief overview of the new medical specialty training system, and it is discussed in the context of the guideline for medical specialty training system published recently.
Background: Hand hygiene is recognized as the leading factor to prevent Healthcare-Associated Infection. This report describes an investigation of education in hand hygiene for nurses to visualize hand contamination.
Method: Twenty-nine nurses underwent education using adenosine triphosphate (ATP) measurements and fluorescent cream and black light, and a survey was conducted.
Results: A significantly higher number of nurses recognized the importance of hand hygiene after receiving education. Approximately 80% of nurses were able to: ″reflect on their methods for washing their hands″ , ″understand the necessity of keeping their hands clean after removing their gloves″ , and ″check for areas of the hands that had not been cleaned″ .
Discussion: This report suggested that education in hand hygiene using adenosine triphosphate (ATP) measurements and fluorescent cream and black light for nurses improves their perception of the importance of hand hygiene.
Sources of research funding: We gratefully acknowledge the support of the 17th Congress of the Japanese Society for Emergency Medicine support of this program.
Ethical considerations: The program was conducted after receiving approval from the Institutional Animal Experiment Committee of the Jichi Medical University, and in accordance with the Institutional Regulation for Animal Experiments and Fundamental Guideline for Proper Conduction of Animal Experiment and Related Activities in Academic Research Institutions under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. It was approved on April 9th, 2014. The approval number is 14-225.
Disclosure of conflicts of interests: We gratefully acknowledge the contributions of personnel from Panasonic Corp. who enabled the interactive communication system.
Introduction: Live surgery demonstrations have been widely used in surgical education. However, they cannot be used to demonstrate trauma surgery due to the emergency situation and lack of informed consent. The aim of this study was to conduct a live demonstration of trauma surgery with a porcine model to increase educational opportunities in trauma surgery.
Methods: Live demonstration was conducted at the Center for Development of Advanced Medical Technology (CDAMtec) , Jichi Medical University, Japan. An experienced trauma surgeon instructed three trainees during a live demonstration using pre-planned injuries in a porcine model. A six-point Likert Scale was used on a written survey to determine the value of the program to the viewers. Free-form written comments were also obtained from the participants. Live images of the surgical field were transmitted to a lecture room by a closed wireless LAN with interactive bidirectional audio capability.
Results: Eighty-three participants viewed this live demonstration and completed the questionnaire. Participants were highly satisfied with the live demonstration (mean survey scores: 4.6-5.1/6) , and gave very positive feedback concerning the educational value of this program. Nine free-form comments were submitted, which revealed that the participants felt they could acquire concrete skills for trauma surgery.
Discussion: Live demonstrations for trauma surgery using a porcine model are a feasible and effective educational tool to demonstrate technical procedures and non-technical skills, with possible added advantages regarding the ethical considerations of performing a live surgery demonstration.
In the coming ″Super-aging society″ , collaboration between medical professionals and health workers in home-care will be critical. Thus, undergraduate interprofessional education is important for the improvement of a collaborative attitude. We ran a 2-day IPE program for a medical and a rehabilitation student focused on collaboration for patients who have chronic diseases and problems in Activities of Daily Life (ADL) . As a result, one showed marked improvement in ADL while the other did not. Students learned not only roles and perceptions of other professionals but also a sense of worth and an appreciation of the difficulty of patient-centered home-care.
In the 18th workshop of educators on post-graduates in Tokai University Hospital as faculty development, we held a unit of ″Career Design for Residents″ . The association between the changes in the social structure and career development of doctors was first shown, and the background of the necessity of career support was outlined. In addition, participants experienced the use of a worksheet for residents' career instruction. In the review of the workshop, the necessity of organic coordination in group guidance by the training division with individual counseling by mentors was suggested. We will continuously offer career education as career path support.
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