It is a great social demand on the medical education system to produce high quality physicians well -prepared for the coming aged society. Besides the inborn emphasis on the technical competence in medical training, the skills to improve the quality of life of patients is currently getting more and more important. In this aspect, human relationship and amenity dimensions need to be more emphasized in the medical education process. Based upon the observation that lecture-based classes still prevail in the curricula of Japanese medical schools, I dare say that there are eventually no revolutionary strategies initiated for effective learning in the medical education system in Japan. In connection to the strategy development, it is necessary to adopt third-party evaluation of the education system as well as the evaluation by educators themselves. To sum up, I strongly emphasize the importance of strategic programming of primary care education which includes experience-based training of effective communication skills and of whole-person approach to patients.
Objective: Since medical colleges do not offer lectures on medicine in the first year, it is difficult for students to become enthusiastic about medicine. The purpose of the present study is to discuss the relationship between the PPSS scale and attitudes regarding school work in first year medical students. Methods: The term “ikigai” describes the state in which people have a positive purpose, a sense of being full and social support. The PPSS scale was used to measure a sense of “ikigai ”. Interest in lectures, lateness for lectures, the reading of medical books, and whether or not students had any training in hospitals were separately evaluated. Results: Those students who were interested in lectures, read medical books, and who had experienced training in hospitals scored higher on the PPSS scale than those with the opposite profile. Conclusion: Ego identity is an important factor in the PPSS scale of first year medical students, and the continual relationship between teaching staff and students prompts the acquisition of such ego identity in these medical students.
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the independence of students. The multiple regression analysis was performed with four independence scales as objective and explanatory variables, respectively. As a result, emotional conflict for supervisor proved to have a strong influence on self-estimation (R2=0.137, p<0.001).
Only technical knowledge is taught at medical school. How medical professionals should behave and emphasize with patients is not taught. It is strange that the purely scientific has dominated medical education for so long. Without the incentive to care for and protect patients, it is difficult to acquire the ability to apply medical knowledge and skills. In other words, emotion and knowledge cannot be separated in medical education. Being full of consideration for the patient constitutes the affective basis of medicine. This attitude should be taught repeatedly in clinical practice. The best model for aspiring doctors is the good conduct and attitudes of other doctors senior to them.
In 1995, an experimental examination consisting of an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) and multiple choice questions (MCQs) regarding physical examinations was held by a research group conducted by Prof. Saichi HOSODA, Tokyo Women's Medical College, and subsidized by the Ministry of Health and Welfare. Sixty-two fifth-year students (volunteers) were assessed their skills in interviewing, physical examination, and cardio-pulmonary resuscitation at five stations, by faculty members from several universities using detailed checklists. The group found: 1) No correlation was observed between OSCE and MCQ tests, 2) Two-ranked checklists improved the reliability of the evaluation, 3) Examinees showed great interest in the method and expressed a hope that OSCE might be introduced into undergraduate education. OSCE will encourage the learning activities of students.
Learning of humanistic attitudes in undergraduate medical education is increasingly expected to provide holistic care and comprehensive medical service. However, there has been no report that deals with doctors' attitudes toward patients in relation to the educational subject. Medical students, who had been implemented a clinical clerkship for two months, evaluated doctors' attitudes by questionnairs after clerkship. They scored by checklists and rating scales. In this article, we report the views of medical students on doctors' attitudes, and discuss important points for the success of the learning attitudes during undergraduate educational prosses.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between a number of variables and the smokingbehavior of students at 2 medical and 4 nursing schools. Multivariate analysis was applied to clarify theassociation between the Brinkman index and 12 other independent variables. The study population consisted of 1, 207 medical and 682 nursing students in Japan. 1) 35.4% of medical students (1-6th grades), 12.5% of nursing students and 28.7% of medical students (1-3rd grades) smoked. Medical students in the 5th or 6th grade smoked more frequently than the otherstudents. 2) Smokers in medical school and those giving up smoking in nursing school had more knowledge aboutsmoking and its physical effects than the others. 3) Multiple regression analysis showed that the coefficients of determination for the Brinkman indiceswere 0.197 in medical school (1-6th grades), 0.055 in nursing school and 0.106 in medical schools (1-3rd grades). The main independent variables were age, sex and maternal smoking history.
Initiatives for the prevention of hearing impairment and deafness were carried out in existing health programs. Unfortunately, however, these programs had not attracted funding in many countries due to the lack of hard data in order to create public awareness, political support and interest from nongovernmental organizations. A new independent representative agency, Hearing International (HI), came into existence in October of 1992. HI publishes a newsletter called Hearing International four times a year. The major goal of HI is to promote the prevention and management of hearing impairment and deafness world-wide (global ear care). Primary ear care should be incorporated into existing primary health care programs in each country.