The working group to improve foreign language education in medical schools established in 1994 and chaired by K. Uemura, M.D. sent questionaire about their present curricula and future plans for teaching English to the deans of all 49 public and 31 private medical schools from January 9 to March 9, 1995, and collected the responses from 30 (61.2%) public, 24 (77.4%) private, in total 54 (67.5%) medical schools. The teaching of useful English includes English conversation in 37 (68.5%), medical English in 34 (63.0%), and structures of medical papers in 9 (16.7%) schools. Medical English is also taught as extracurricular and other activities in 40 (74.1%) schools. These figures have increased as compared with the ques-tionaire conducted two years previously. English conversation can be taught to junior (1st & 2nd yrs) students, for whom medical English can only be taught on general medical topics such as the medical care delivery system, bioethics, roles of physicians, and primay care. Therefore medical English is more and more taught to middle-class (3rd & 4th yrs) and senior (5th & 6th yrs) students. It seems necessary to annually conduct a workshop for medical English teachers to improve their strategies of teaching.
“The first workshop to improve ‘Medical English’ teaching” was held on October 7-8, 1995 in Hamamatsu. An invited guest was Mr. Glendinning from Institute of Applied Language Studies, University of Edinburgh. As questionnaires for this workshop were performed, we report a result of questionnaires. Most participants shared their daily wonder or questions about ‘Medical English’ with others, and this was very beneficial for them. The techniques for ‘Medical English’ education, instructed by Mr. Glendinnign, was impressive for participants. As the program of the workshop was a little conceptual rather than practical, this point should be improved for the next time because most participants expected to learn more practical skills. Participants answered that this kind of annual workshop was useful and should be continued.
The working group to improve foreign language education in medical schools established in 1994 and chaired by K. Uemura, M.D. here proposes a model curriculum for teaching useful English in medical schools at three levels. The major objectives are listening, speaking, rapid reading, and sentence structuring including paragraphing for junior (1st & 2nd yrs) students, reading medical papers and charts in English, structures of medical scientific papers, and listening to medical English for middleclass (3rd & 4th yrs) students, and writing and orally presenting papers in English on given medical subjects are for senior (5th & 6th yrs) students.
The Working Group for the Improvement of Foreign Language Education in Medical Schools in Japan, organized in 1994 and chaired by Prof. K. Uemura, M.D. lists here English teaching materials for medical purposes. More than half of the materials listed are those that one of the group members, T. Ohki, has used or wants to use in his classes. The list has been enlarged due to the responses to the questionnare sent to those who participated in the first workshop held in 1995. The list is divided into 12 categories: listening & reading, writing, medical terminology, pronunciation, textbooks for training the four skills, essays on medicine, fictional stories about medicine & medical doctors, medical ethics and terminal care, handbooks for medical students and doctors, writing medical charts, self-teaching materials. and video materials. It is hoped that the materials listed here will supplement a model curriculum for teaching ‘useful’ English in medical schools, as proposed by the working group.
It is well known that even examinees with incomplete knowledge can figure out the correct answer on an objective test. The Examination Committee of the Ministry of Health concluded that objective tests using answer code (K type questions) can not adequately evaluate an examinee's knowledge. For this reason, the Committee recommended using X2 or X3 type questions on the national board examination instead of K type questions. The X2 type question is a multiple true-false method of testing with 2 true and 3 false items. I believe that the Committee has been mislead, since the X2 type question is really a test with ten answer codes, and an examinee with incomplete knowledge can still figure out the correct answer for it.
Integration of instruction and more well-rounded curriculum are needed owing to the increasing specialization of nursing education. In this study we evaluated the teaching of clinical neurology in nursing education from various viewpoints. 1) The clinical neurology curriculum at the Tokyo Women's Medical College School of Nursing for the past 20 years and the results of examinations given at the school. 2) The frequency of test questions on basic and clinical neurology in the past 15 years on the national nursing license examination. 3) Questionnaires on the teaching of clinical neurology filled out by student nurses. Conclusions: Most nursing students consider the neuroanatomy and pathophysiology of neurologic disorders to be extremely important subjects, while others feel that clinical neurology is difficult to understand. In the future, the number of elderly persons will increase more rapidly, and highly specialized neurologic teaching will be required in nursing schools.
As the second phase of a trial of student evaluations of didactic lectures, a modified questionnaire (B5 type, consisting of seven items, each having five multiple-choice responses and more space for written responses) was filled out anonymously by all students receiving didactic lectures of one instructor in a preventive medicine and community health course from 1992 through 1994. The frequency of written responses was 51.8% higher than in our previous trial (1990-91). Multivariate analysis was also applied to investigate the items most related to the summative assessment. The minimal essential questionnaire items and the necessity of space for written responses in frequent trials is discussed.