The aim of this study is to clarify the definition and recognition on continuing medical education for administrators (or leaders for residents) of 80 university hospitals and 266 clinical training hospitals as designated by the Ministry of Health and Welfare, using the questionaire consited of 5 main questions, as following: 1) On the curriculum (program) of continuing medical education in their hospitals. 2) On the continuing medical education system of Japan Medical Association. 3) On the continuing medical education activity of the specified academic societies. 4) On guide of continuing medical education for the residents. 5) On definition of continuing medical education. Answers to a questionaire were returned from 227 institutions (65.6%) Analyzing the results, present situation of program curricula for continuing medical education in hospitals, participation to continuing medical education system of Japan Medical Association and Academic Societies, and consideration on continuing medical education as a hospital leader were comprehensible.
The relation between student selection methods, including results of entrance examinations, and progress after admission was analyzed by means of path analysis and discriminant analysis in 318 sudents. Among students who had been admitted on the basis of an open entrance examination, those with rank in high school record from high school and female students performed better in medical school, whereas students who had prepared for the entrance examination after graduation from high school performed worse. On the other hand, students who had rank in high school record from high shool, who had higher interview evaluations, or who had earned a degree other than a medical degree were more likely to pass the national examination for medical practitioners after a minimum of 6 years of study. Among students who had been admitted on the recommendations of high shool principals, those with better grades during high school records and higher interview evaluations had a higher success rate on the national examination for medical practitioners.
Occupational health was taught to 3rd-year medical students using simulated patients and role playing. Patient profiles were created to enable students to consider psychosocial aspects, such as work environment and lifestyles, involved in occupational health. Simulated patients were used, later, students acted as patients and each student played the role of an occupational health doctor. The aim of the exercise was for students, through their own actions and observations, to learn communication skills and approaches to occupational health, such as prevention, health promotion, and the importance of health education, which are based on a biopsychosocial model. Students were extremely interested and found the course valuable. This result shows the effectiveness and current shortage of active learning methods as well as the need for acquiring communication skills. Although learning communication skills is most relevant to clinical medicine, active learning and communication training is also important for occupational health education because the latter should be based not on the traditional doctor-patient relationship but on the biopsychosocial model.
The success rate on the national medical license examination was calculated as the number of successful new graduates divided by the number of students at matriculation. Statistical analysis revealed that private medical colleges could be divided into two different groups: a large group A and a small group B. Furthermore, group A and national medical colleges could be regarded as one group. The conclusions are as follows. 1. The success rate of group A is almost equal to that of national medical colleges. 2. In the two groups, no significant correlation was observed between the success rate and the matriculation rate. 3. The success rate is a reliable index of the teaching efficiency of medical colleges.
The methodology of AIDS education for the yourth is extremely important. AIDS Peer Education was given to nursing students by AIDS Peer Educators (APE), trained and certified by the Stop AIDS Campaign Committee of the Japan Hospital Association. The APEs are 18-to 21-year-old medical or nursing students. Posteducational questionnaires were distributed and analyzed. One hundred fifty-five students (92.6%) replied. According to the survey, students found the learning method extremely attractive and felt sympathy toward patients with AIDS. More than 60 % of students felt a change in attitude about AIDS. The effect of the education using APEs was remarkable.
A new educational program for the medical doctor was introduced at Tokyo Women's Medical College in 1990 with a 4-year tutorial education model as its core. To develop the program for educational training more efficiently, current facilities were reviewed on a large scale, and various types of equipment and supplementary materials were made available. We are now investigating utilization and problems of the current program. Supplies and materials of tutorial rooms and mirror rooms have been used effectively. The library has become increasingly useful as a place for independent study and research. However, audiovisual materials have not yet been made fully available. We suggest that further improvements to the system and fostering an environment of open access to information are necessary to increase the accessibility of the support system for tutorial education.
Psychiatric bedside teaching has been employed for undergraduate students at our department since 1980. The reports of individual students on bedside teaching are compiled as a booklet entitled Medicine Based on Human Communication that is given to the students at graduation every year. The goals of bedside teaching have been accepted by students in general, and bedside teaching also appears to be useful for attitude education. Students find values in bedside teaching which differ from those of other medical subjects.