In 1961, China Medical University was the first medical school in China to set up a 6-year Japanese language medical class. After 1980, nearly 20 other medical colleges and universities in China set up medical classes in English, French, German, and Russian. These classes are generally called “medical classes taught in foreign languages”. Usually, 25 or 30 excellent senior middle-school students are chosen to form a class each year. During the 1st year they learn foreign languages. During the next 5 years they use textbooks written in foreign languages and receive medical lectures in foreign languages. Some talented persons have mastered both a foreign language and the medical sciences. This article investigates and analyzes some related information about students who have graduated from 17 medical classes taught in foreign languages (9 in Japanese and 8 in English) at China Medical University.
X type questions have been used for the national medical licensing examination since 1997. At Tsukuba University, X type questions have been used since 1996. We compared X typeand K type questions on the basis of the percentage of correct answers and discrimination power. The average percentage of correct answers was 68.2% for K type questions and 53.1% for X type questions. However, the average discrimination power was +0.227 for K type questions and +0.257 for X type questions. These results indicate that X type questions are more difficult and are suitable for achievement tests. The estimated knowledge quantity was 2.04 for K type questions and 2.32 for X type questions. This suggests that the person writing the questions decreased the essential difficulty of X type questions.
Objective: To investigate whether postgraduate education through evidence-based medicine can affect the knowledge and behavior of residents. Design: Self-controlled and externally controlled trial. Setting: University hospital. Participants: Fifteen residents specializing in family medicine. Intervention: Four 2-hour seminars and weekly evidence-based medicine-style journal club meetings. Main outcome measures: Scores from a test of knowledge of evidence-based medicine and the number of MEDLINE searches conducted each month. Results: All residents improved their knowledge of evidence-based medicine and conducted more MEDLINE searches each month than did other medical residents or residents of our department last year. Conclusion: Postgraduate education through evidence-based medicine is effective in improving residents' knowledge and behavior.
We reviewed essays on clinical ethics written by 94 5th and 6th-year medical students on rotation at the Department of General Internal Medicine of Kyoto University Hospital. Issues regarding brain death, medical decisions concerning the end of life, and informed consent and truth telling were each identified as ethically important by one-third of the students. Approximately 90% of the students expressed a desire to learn more about ethical issues, including actual ethical decisions made by physicians in Japan, cross-cultural differences, medical decisions concerning the end of life, and informed consent. Most students were extremely sensitive to issues of informed consent and truth telling relevant to the patients they cared for.
High-technology diagnostic instruments have advanced markedly in recent years. However, young physicians and clinicians tend to become too dependent on these sophisticated instruments and neglect the importance of bedside clinical skills. I report about a new multimedia cardiology patient simulator, recently developed through the application of new digital and computer technology, that is able to play back selected physical findings (jugular venous waves ; arterial pulses of carotid, brachial, radial and femoral arteries ; and cardiac impulses), cardiac sounds and murmurs, and respiratory sounds that have been recorded from actual patients. The examiners use an ordinary stethoscope. This simulator effectively improves the bedside clinical skills of medical students, nurses, and general physicians. This simulator will soon become an essential tool for the bedside medical training of physicians, medical students, nurses, and paramedics throughout the world.
I have used plastic-embedded, surgically resected specimens to teach surgery. These specimens were obtained from more than 100 cases of important surgical diseases, such as gastric cancer, goiter, and inflammatory diseases. They are more easily carried than are formalin-preserved specimens. After I teach my students each disease, I show the corresponding specimen, explain the pathologic changes, and discuss the surgical procedure with which they were obtained. I then let the students handle and examine the specimens. Observation of actual specimens will help students clearly understand diseases and give stronger impressions than can words, illustrations, or photographs.
We have developed a portable response analysis system to collect student opinions in real time during lectures. This system consists of a main control box, 128 telemetric answering devices, a notebook computer, and a portable video projector. This system is completely portable and can be set up in any lecture room. Students answer questions by pushing one of 10 keys on the telemetric answering device. The control program collects student responses to questions, and statistical values are presented with the video projector through a computer in real time. This system is useful for improving lectures since student responses can be displayed quickly. Examples from a medical school lecture on behavioral sciences are shown.
A student with quadriplegia from an accident that occurred during a club activity graduated from Shiga University of Medical Science and obtained a license to practice medicine. Considering his wishes, his ability, and his health status, the faculty committee decided to permit him to continue studying at the university after the accident. Under the committee, a working group of teachers, students, and office staff was formed to help his studies, transportation, and preparation for the national medical examination. His classmates helped him study, and the health care center and the physician in charge supervised his health care. A special vehicle for transportation and instruments for operating computers had to be developed. His classmates thought that learning with a disabled student was a valuable experience that increased their understanding of the disabled. Even students with impairments can receive an medical educatin if they have the ability and if educational methods are devised.
I had an opportunity to attend the 10th Forum of Leaders of Medical Education, which was sponsored by the Japan Medical Education Foundation. Guest lecturers were Dr. Michael Rosenblatt, Executive Director of Harvard Medical School/Beth Israel Hospital Foundation for Research and Education, and Dr. Frank Harris, Dean of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Leicester. Both their lectures gave implicit suggestions for the future reform of Japanese medical education. The main suggestions to improve medical education were that 1) lectures on the clinical medicine should be minimized and self learning through a tutorial system should be encouraged; and 2) except for the basic medical sciences, teaching in medical schools and hospitals should be limited to the training of skills, including communication skills, for medical examinations. In addition, the system for evaluation of instructors at Harvard Medical School is impressive because it stresses educational ability and educational achievements rather than research achievements.
For 4 weeks I took part in a clinical clerkship program at Thomas Jefferson University in the United States. This opportunity gave me important experiences in medicine and medical education. The goal of studying medicine abroad while one is a medical student is to be “ motivating ”. Medical students in the United States are given the great responsibility of participate in patient care as part of a treatment team. This seems to be what motivates medical students.