A survey of the relationship between smoking and the academic performance of 5th-year students at Kawasaki Medical School was carried out over a 2-year period (1996 and 1997). Students were asked about their smoking habits when they visited our ward to see patients. To assess their academic performance, students were divided into two groups; students who were promoted to the 5th-year without failures (straight-promotion group) and students who had repeated the same year at least once (repeater group). Among male students, smoking rates in the straight-promotion group were 48.9 % in 1996 and 39.1% in 1997, whereas those in the repeater group were 80.6% and 65.4%. Among female students, smoking rates in the straight-promotion group were 8.7% in 1996 and 9.1% in 1997, whereas those in the repeater group were 25.0% and 37.5%. The smoking rate among male students was significantly higher in the repeater group than in the straight-promotion group, whereas there was no statistical difference between the two groups among female students. Our results suggest that smoking and poor academic performance are related. More aggressive antismoking education is needed to reduce the high smoking rate among male medical students in Japan.
A course in the Igakugairon for 1st-year students to develop an active learning attitude has been conducted since 1992 at the Shiga University of Medical Science. On the basis of observations of educational results during this period, the course's length, contents, and scheduling were improved. It has become a full-year course for 1st-year students. Lecture classes were decreased and classes in which students participate in discussions and role playing were increased. In particular, classes focusing on an “early exposure” program at medical and welfare facilities have provided an important opportunity for changes in learning attitudes among students. Although class attendance is not mandatory, it is more than 80% in every class, and students actively take part in discussions. From the attitudes of the students in the class and their evaluations of the course, we have concluded that this course is effective in developing an active learning attitude among students.
Social needs have prompted the development of new teaching methods in which active learning by students is emphasized. Public health education with student participation was introduced in a nursing school. A self-evaluation survey found that students considered these public health lectures good or excellent and were interested in public health and community health nursing. We conducted an analysis with covariance analysis of linear structural equations procedure using SAS statistical software to clarify a relationships among readiness of students, their learning types, and learning satisfaction in public health. A multiple indicator multiple cause model showed that learning satisfaction was associated with readiness for interest in public health, and learning type for self-directed learning. Students satisfied with student-centered public health education felt discouraged about nursing education. Our results suggest that teachers should develop the ability to communicate with students about dissatisfaction in nursing school and to support self-directed learning and tutor-assisted learning in small groups.
This study examined the effectiveness of a communication program in undergraduate medical education in improving communication in physicians' clinical practice. The effectiveness of the program was assessed with a mail survey using self-rated questionnaires 9 years later. Ninety participants were follwed up in late 1994; 57.8% of them replied to the questionnaire. Of the respondents, 60% replied that programs concerned with active listening and role-playing had benefits on communicating with patients and families. In addition, 40% of respondents answered that case studies aimed at teaching comprehensive medicine with the team approach was effective in improving communication with co-medical staff. These results suggest that the communication program in undergraduate medical education is effective in improving clinical communication in clinical practice when students are highly motivated.
In the past 2 years, five 1st-year medical trainees with excellent knowledge and attitude trained with an instructor supervision in the physical examination of the heart with 4 to 5 patients a week. Despite their undergraduate medical education, these medical trainees could not detect abnormal physical findings of the heart. As much as 5 months of training was required before they could satisfactorily detect such abnormalities.
A questionnaire survey of opinions about postgraduate clinical training was conducted among doctors who had graduated from Kochi Medical School. Completed questionnaires were returned by 121 doctors (46.5%). Many doctors chose hospitals before graduation to secure working positions rather than to receive actual training. About half of the doctors think that training of emergency medicine was poor at their clinical training hospitals. To encourage medical students to participate actively in postgraduate clinical training and to train efficiently, university hospitals and clinical training hospitals designated by the Ministry of Health and Welfare should cooperate with one another and organize training programs for emergency medicine.
This list aims to supplement “A List of English Teaching Materials for Medical Purposes”(1996). It is based on responses to a questionnaire we sent to the medical departments of 60 universities in August 1997 asking for books to recommend. The list consists of two parts: general and technical. The first part is divided into four categories: reading, vocabulary, conversation, and videos. The “reading” category is subdivided into edited textbooks and original books. The title of each listed book is followed by respondents' comments.
We third-year medical students visited Thomas Jefferson University during the last spring vacation. We attended classes and received clinical practical training with American medical students for three weeks. In classes the students learn actively through discussions, and for three days a week they study cases through small group discussions. In the clinical clerkship they actively participate in patient care and the learning of clinical reasoning rather than just diagnosis is emphasized. This 3-week visit gave us a great opportunity to reconsider not only ourselves but also the Japanese systems for medical care and education.