Because new media have come onstage in the information technology period, also self-learning methods have been diversified. Recently, small group discussion such as clinical conference using the mailing list is lively performed among the primary care physicians, and it is considered to be useful for continuing medical education. To promote the mailing list for continuing medical education, we present as follows; 1) present situation: to show a good example of TFC-ML (total family care-mailing list), 2) usefulness: to know new medical knowledge, new medical information and literatures etc., to discuss clinical cases. 3) issues: a role of moderator, excess of information, correspondence with slander, 4) future: to reevaluate usefulness for continuing medical education. We would like to expect effectiveness of mailing list for continuing medical education.
In the fourth-year curriculum of the Chiba University School of Medicine, suggesting changes in health behavior and informing patients of bad news were studied through lectures and small-group role-playing with simulated patients as part of an advanced course in medical interviewing. We report on the contents of the curriculum and the results of an evaluation.
The Common Achievement Tests Organization performed the first nationwide trial of computer-based testing (CBT) used to assess students entering the clinical phase of medical education. Seventy-seven medical schools participated in the trial. We compared performance on the national CBT with performance on preclinical tests administered at Gifu University School of Medicine. Despite some methodologic differences between the national CBT and our system, the overall results correlated well. Students who did poorly on the national CBT also did poorly on Gifu University's preclinical test. Correlation of these two performance scales suggests that nationwide CBT could be used to accurately assess preclinical skills.
Tools to assess problem-solving skills are limited, and comprehensive evaluation is difficult. Concept mapping might be used to evaluate learners' organization of knowledge at various points during training. We used concept mapping to evaluate postgraduate training at the Department of Education Training Technology and Development, National Institute of Public Health. Thirty-five healthcare workers, including physicians, and public health nurses, underwent concept mapping training, drew preinstruction concept maps about public health or community organization, completed an educational course, and then drew postinstruction concept maps. Maps were assessed independently through qualitative comparison of concepts, conceptual links, hierarchy, knowledge domains, cross-links, and examples of preinstruction and postinstitution maps. This study provides preliminary evidence that concept mapping reflects changes and differences in the conceptual framework of individuals and of members of different healthcare specialties. Concept mapping can be used to clarify conceptual frameworks and to develop problem-solving skills. Moreover, concept mapping might be used to evaluate problem-solving skills.
I investigated the use of surveys of medical students attending Osaka Medical College for evaluating education. Questionnaires were distributed to fourth-year students twice, in 2001 and 2002. Both signed and anonymous questionnaires were used each time. The recovery rates for the signed questionnaires were 100% in 2001 and 2002, and those for anonymous questionnaires were 93.1% and 81.5%, respectively. The students believed that the lectures had good points but could be improved. Evaluation scores were higher for 63.3% of items on the second questionnaire, a finding that suggests lectures have improved. Free opinions were offered by 30% to 40% of respondents and included concrete suggestions for improving lectures. These results suggest that evaluation of medical education by students is useful for teaching-staff development and, in particular, for improving lectures at Osaka Medical College.
We compared the effects on clinical clerkships of an electronic medical record (EMR) system and a standard medical record system. Using an EMR system, students described medical records with a problem-oriented medical record system/subject objective assessment, and plan that was much better than the standard medical record system. In the EMR system, students cannot see physicians' medical records, including laboratory data and X-ray films. Instead, students themselves must obtain the patient history and request examinations as physicians do. This system helps supervisors give suitable comments and provide data that students have requested. Directors can also evaluate supervisors by reviewing their comments. Therefore, an EMR system has the advantage of problem-oriented medical record system-based learning for students and is also useful for clinical clerkships.
Problem-based learning (PBL) tutorials were introduced at our university in April 2001. Because a complete PBLbased curriculum could not be adopted, a transitional curriculum incorporating 3-hour PBL tutorial sessions into the traditional curriculum was introduced. More than 80% of students agreed that PBL is an effective way of learning problem solving at the bedside. Twenty percent to 40% of teachers felt that students who took PBL were more motivated for bedside learning and self-directed learning and had better at presentation than were students who did not take PBL. Because of 80% of the curriculum comprised didactic lectures, most students considered PBL tutorials a type of lecture. For this reason, motivating students to learn additional material originating from PBL tutorials was difficult. Although the combination of a traditional curriculum and PBL tutorials may appear to be a new curriculum, this type of PBL has limited value as a method for studying problem solving.
Teachers of primary care have been interested in how complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is taught in the United States. This is a report on a workshop entitled “Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Content, Process, and Pedagogical Issues” at the 35th Annual Spring Conference of the Society of Teachers of Family Medicine. Workshop participants shared basic knowledge about terminology, categories, and the present status of CAM education. Participants also discussed “The Dream: Integrative Physician” and emphasized the importance of evidence-based medicine and attitudes embracing CAM.