A clinical clerkship program was introduced at the University of Tokyo in 2002 to help students acquire clinical knowledge, skills, and attitudes by increasing their involvement in clinical activities. We assessed the learning effectiveness of clinical clerkships at the University of Tokyo Hospital by examining evaluations of student's clinical competence by themselves and by the faculty. Methods: We evaluated each clerkship with reference to overall educational goals developed in advance. We measured students' self-evaluations and evaluatio s by the faculty before and after the clerkship. Results: At the end of the 2-month clerkship, students' self-evaluation scores (3.18) were significantly higher than before the clerkship (2.71). In particular, scores for patient care were markedly higher. Evaluation scores by the faculty were also higher during (3.64) and after (3.57) clerkships than before (3.26) clerkships. Conclusion: We will use this data to make next year's clerkship programs more effective. We should also develop more-objective strategies for evaluation and establish relevant educational goals.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical clerkship program at the University of Tokyo Hospital. We report results of course and faculty evaluations by students and of qualitative evaluations, such as students, free comments and group interviews. Methods: Each item of the course and faculty evaluations was related to the overall educational goals developed in advance. Students evaluated the course and faculty immediately after the course ended. Results: Students rated the clerkship program favorably overall, but the scores of thesecond month (3.38) were lower that those of the first month (3.63). Although learning basic clinical procedures is not the main educational goal of the clerkship, students varied widely in their opportunities to perform procedures. Scores of faculty evaluations ranged from 2.93 to 3.87 in the first month and were lower in the second month for all but two items. Interviews revealed that students had fewer learning experiences in the second month because new residents started their rotations at that time. Conclusion: The results suggest that the scheduling of clinical clerkships should be changed. The contents of clerkship need further consideration.
Since 1998 the Synthetic Personality Inventory (SPI), a well-established aptitude test, has been used to select residents at St. Luke's International Hospital. The aims of our study were to analyze the association of the SPI with several characteristics of residents, e. g., intellectual capability, results of examinations in medicine, and evaluation during 2 years of residency, and to clarify the significance of the SPI for selecting residents. General mental ability measured with the SPI was strongly correlated with the intellectual capability of residents but was not correlated with results of examinations in medicine. High scores for general mental ability, for activity, and for tendency of extroversion were correlated with high evaluations of residents for 2 years, whereas a cooperative personality, reasoning ability, and practicality were related to an improvement in grades from the first to second years. These results demonstrate that the results of the SPI are correlated with several characteristics of residents.
A junior-resident training system that includes compulsory psychiatric training will be started in 2004. The contents of a training program required by all general physicians must be discussed. We investigated inpatients and outpatients at the department of psychiatry of the International Medical Center of Japan from the viewpoint of consultation-liaison psychiatry. We realized that first-year residents are likely to encounter organic mental disorders, such as delirium and dementia, and neurotic, stress-related somatoform disorders and, therefore, need to learn about these disorders from the start of training. However, we believe that schizophrenia, previously considered a core subject of psychiatric training, need not be studied in detail by all first-year residents.
At Tokyo Women's Medical University, our curriculum for first-year students is designed to teach the dynamics and etiquette of human relations. During the third year, medical students are expected to anticipate and plan effective therapeutic communication and interaction with patients. A discussion group of 6 students and a member of the human-relations committee first clarify the purpose and develop the training; students then independently participate in human-relations training during the summer vacation. After training, experiences are discussed during class. Although this curriculum has been used for some 10 years, its benefits have been assumed but not validated. We used student reports and questionnaires to examine the effects of this curriculum. The results clearly show that planning and training give the students an opportunity to learn how to establish an effective physician-patient relationship.
We have used two methods for education of pathology at the Yokohama City University School of Medicine: 1) clinicopathological conferences on autopsy cases and 2) journal club using “Case Records of the Massachusetts General Hospital” published in the New England Journal of Medicine. Both methods are extremely effective for stimulating students' enthusiasm for learning, improving presentation skills, and consolidating the minds of students as future medical staff members. Furthermore, journal club enhances the affinity for reading medical English.