1) Korean medical education movement into Anglo-Saxon model is more rapid than the change in Japanese medical education. Health personnel licensing examinations have been sponsored by non-Governmental organization, NHPLEB (National Health Personnel Licensing Examination Board) instead of The Ministry of Health since 1994. 2) Though governments in developing countries and former socialistic areas still actively lead medical education system, only a few developed countries stick to such an old system. In Japan, many stakeholders continue to hold consciousness since Edo period that government will determine most of the system. In Korea, the situation is opposite. 3) Korean medical schools began to adopt a new graduate school system (4+4 in 2002; 10 out of 41 medical schools decided to introduce the new system. Such new curriculum structure is compatible with international standard. 4) In Korean medical schools, the budget for human resources seems to be relatively much richer than that in Japan. Reform in Korean medical schools increased the number of professors in each department, though Japanese ones move toward cutback. 5) The Korean Society of Medical Education was established in 1983. The Society holds two annual meetings a year. Spring meeting is similar to the one for the Association for American Medical Colleges and held in conjunction with Nationwide Dean's meeting, including various faculty development workshops and committee meetings as well.
1) Medical education in Malaysia is strongly affected by United Kingdom, which previously governed this area. Malaysia and UK have similarities in admission of high school graduates to medical schools, five-year curriculum emphasising primary care, and certifying graduation by internal and external examiners. 2) Twinning programme is a general trend in Malaysia; offering medical degree from overseas after completing part of the partner school's curriculum in Malaysia. 3) International Medical University, where the author had worked from 2003 to 2005, reveals strong enthusiasm in medical education because it sends students to undergraduate clinical education in 27 different partner medical schools in Western countries, provides hybrid curriculum with problem-based learning in preclinical years, moves towards outcome-based curriculum, and promotes several medical education research projects. 4) Thus, medical education in Malaysia has made significant and innovative progress through severe competition with surrounding areas as well as western countries.
1) Afghanistan is one of countries facing serious health situation in the world, and Japan starts support in various area after Tokyo international conference for Afghanistan reconstruction in January, 2002. 2) International Research Center for Medical Education (IRCME), the University of Tokyo, sent faculties as members of JICA expert team for Kabul in 2003 and 2004, and launched support reconstruction of medical education of Afghanistan. 3) IRCME formed consortium in cooperation with Japan Society for Medical Education, International Medical Center of Japan Bureau of International Cooperation and other institutions in order to carry out Medical Education Project to support medical education development of Kabul Medical University, Afghanistan.
1) A short overview of undergraduate medical education in UK is presented. 2) High school graduates enter medical school of basically five years course. 3) In lower grades lectures are minor and small group learning is major. 4) Demonstration-simulation-practice is major learning strategy. 5) Students of middle and upper grades take variable clinical practices. 6) Supporting system for medical education suchas NHS or medical education centers are well established.
1) All the medical schools in France are public, and the admission is open to almost all the qualifieds tudents. However, the number of students allowed to advance to the clinical education is strictly limited. 2) Clerkship similar to the one in the USA is mandatory in the last two years of medical school. The students take care of inpatients under meticulous supervision by residents and attending staff. 3) Postgraduate training of generalists emphasizes the importance of experiencing sufficient number of outpatients under supervision, so that the residents become competent to work as independent practitioners in three years. 4) Specialty trainings are balanced with mixtures of inpatient care, outpatient care and procedures. The number of residency positions is determined to provide of enough opportunities in each aspect of the education
1) German regulation for medical educatin and licensing was largely revised in 2003 2) Clinical instruction in the undergraduate education was emphasized 3) State medical examinations were reduced from four to two 4) Instead of it university examinations were introduced 5) Oral-practical part of the state examination was emphasized
1) The study tour was organized by Dr. Hinohara to learn about the medical education in North America and its philosophy to support the method. 2) The McMaster University, which started PBL curriculum in 1969, began COMPASS curriculum which focuses on conceptual thinking and e-learning in which tutorial groups still remain as the key to the learning process. 3) The Duke University, which values the researcher promotion, began a new curriculum including at further integration of basic and clinical medicine and structural clinical training (Intersession). 4) The Washington University, which constructed WWAMI Program that cooperated with the medical institutions in four states surrounding Washington, started College System to support the students and to strengthen their clinical competencies. 5) Common aspects of the innovation of medical education in North America are (1) further integration of the basic and clinical medicine, (2) early exposure to the principle of clinical medicine and (3) promotion of professionalism by Clinical Preceptorship.
1) I observed the educational and faculty development systems at the Case Western Reserve University Schoolof Medicine for three weeks. 2) Emphasis to develop, communication skills was acknowledged. Effective and personalized curriculum with skillful simulated patients, video recording system, and trained preceptor, was practiced. 3) Extensive discussions were practiced toward a major curricular renovation in 2007. Highly motivated basic and clinical teachers, as well as students were contributing the project. 4) Medical students in the US may take an advantage of computer literacy and abundant web-based resources which areprovided in English.
We investigated the degree of fatigue among medical students during the second trial of the Common Achievement Tests, which use a computer-based testing (CBT) method. A revised questionnaire for subjective fatigue symptoms proposed by the Industrial Fatigue Research meeting of the Japan Society for Occupational Health was used to examine the degree of fatigue. The CBT examinee group (n=41) sat for the examination for 6 hours using video display terminals. Significant changes were seen in 19 of the 25 items for subjective symptoms. At the end of the test period, significant differences between the CBT examinee group and the lecture participant group (n=50) were found for 15 of the items for subjective symptoms. Subjective symptoms were classified into 5 categories: sleepiness, instability, displeasure, feeling languid, and blurred vision. In the CBT examinee group, rates of symptoms increased significantly in all 5 categories. The increase in the rate of “blurred vision” was especially marked.