1) In the field of adult education, there is a lateral relationship of “learning/teaching” between learners and teachers. And the both collaborate for the purpose of “the attainment of the most desirable learning activity” as the subject of learning and the subject responsible for the facilitation of learning. 2) Adult learners have peculiar features in each of the following aspects;‘self-concept’, ‘learning experience’‘the readiness for learning’‘the orientation for learning’‘the motivation for learning’. 3) Self-directed learning is based on the idea of andragogy (the art and science of helping adults learn), and the learners actively and mutually make up their learning plans and put them into practice themselves. 4) Most of the lifelong learning activities in present Japan can be divided into three types (or stages):‘Teacher (and others)-directed learning’, ‘Self-directed learning’ and ‘Self-directed and Mutual transforming leaning’. And in each, the different roles of educators are reguired. 5) The values of adult education such as ‘equality’‘sympathy’‘cooperation’‘mutuality’ and ‘educativeness’ should be consciously shared between learners and teachers in the professional field and in the process of professional training.
1) The present age is at the turning point of the view of “profession/professional” . The new professional ischaracterized with “the reflective practitioner” . 2) The education of the profession has had three ideal types: “apprenticeship model”, “technical exper model”, and “the reflective practitioner model” . 3) In the relationship between master and apprentice are no educational/instructional interactions. The principle of apprenticeship as an education system has two aspects: “imitation of the creation process” and “self-identification with the master” . 4) Complexity, unstableness, uniqueness, and value-conflict of the problems in the present time revealed the limitation of Technical Rationality. The professionals have newly taken a role of the clarification of the problem concerned or “structuring the problematic situation” . 5) The key concept of “the reflective practitioner” is the concept of “reflection/reflective” . It means that the professional practitioner ends not only to construct the cooperative relations among the persons who are involved in the problematic situation, but to be reflective to the professional community to which the practitioner belongs.
1) The 14th Teaching Material Development Committee of Japanese Medical Education Association has made the guideline so that patient's medical information can be adapted for the medical teaching purposes, putting emphasis on the limited use of personal information, the construction of mutual trust with the patient, and informed consent. 2) The guideline says it is possible to use patient information for the medical teaching material, if patient's medical information is made anonymous in such a way that the individual patient cannot be easily identified. The condition of anonymity is determined depending on the media and range of the teaching material usage. The level of making anonymity is severely judged if the teaching material is open on the Internet. 3) The teaching hospital should inform to patients that patient's medical information may be used for an educational purpose under the above mentioned policy, and thus obtain comprehensive informed consent. Individual informed consent is necessary when the teaching material contains patient private information. The use of the teaching material should be limited within public acceptations. Right or wrong of use to the teaching material is judged based on the above-mentioned policy as well as the construction of mutual trust with the patient.
1) The concept of interprofessionality, i. e., cohesive and cooperative practice between professionals, is necessary in North America because health professionals specializing in various fields work together on medical services. 2) To introduce the concept of interprofessionality, interprofessional education, in which many kinds of health profes-sionals or students learn together, is extremely important. The Canadian government has been promoting and generously subsidizing interprofessional education as a way of improving public health and emphasizing patient-cen-tered medicine. 3) In 2006, the University of Toronto established a new certificate course for future educational leaders who promote in-terprofessional education. We participated in this course and recommend that a course of this type be introduced toJapan.
1) In 1982, the Arabian Gulf University College of Medicine and Medical Sciences (AGU), a new regional medical school based in the Kingdom of Bahrain, was established by a consortium of six Arabian Gulf countries and has succeeded in effbcting changes in medical education in the region. 2) High school graduates must be nominated by the relevant ministry in their respective countries to apply to the AGU. Two thirds of the students are women.The entire curriculum is conducted in English, and the AGU provides remedial classes to improve students' English skills during the first year. 3) The AGU has adopted the educational philosophy of problem-based learning since its inception.During the clinical clerkship phase, students revisit basic medical sciences with emphasis on their clinical application.The creativity and innovation of the AGU's programs in the commumity are designed to meet community needs and invite the greater participation of community faculty