There is a need for suitable non-clinical teaching models in undergraduate medical education.This study was undertaken to demonstrate the feasibility of using an animal model to teach surgical skills to medical students.Two gastrotomies were created in each pig, and then closed using stapled and hand-sewn techniques.Animals were sacrificed seven days later and the closures examined grossly and histologically. 1) Medical students, as surgeons with minimal experience, are able to significantly reduce the time needed to perform closure of a gastrotomy in a porcine model using surgical staplers compared to a hand-sewn closure. 2) Medical students can perform advanced abdominal surgery techniques with adequate instruction resulting in excellent surgical outcomes in a porcine model. 3) The porcine model is a valuable tool to teach animal ethics as well as basic surgical techniques in the non-clinical environment and may help to increase interest among students in a surgical career.
The shortage of physicians in Japan has been a social issue since the new postgraduate clinical training system started in 2004.The difficult working conditions of hospital physicians may influence this problem.We used a questionnaire to investigate the working hours, on-call frequency, work contents, and mental health of supervisors at various residency training hospitals in Japan. 1) We surveyed 479 physicians who worked at hospitals certified as residency-training facilities and who participated in a development workshop for supervisors or for residency training program managers held at 8 locations in 2004. 2) We found that supervisors worked, on average, more than 100 hours longer than statutory working hours per month and that more than one-fifth of supervisors worked more than 160 hours longer. 3) As for mental health, more than one-fifth of supervisors showed a depressive tendency. 4) These results suggest that the working conditions of supervisors at residency-training hospitals in Japan should be improved by reducing their clinical duties or managing their work content.
I) In most medical schools, the diseases of organ systems are divided within an integrated curriculum and are not taught in order, however, this situation will improve if several conditions are fulfilled. 2) The conditions that should be fulfilled are maintaining sufficient time for teaching general pathology and for bedside learning in the hospital's department of pathology. 3) Examples of training methods in the pathology of organ systems devised at various medical schools include the use of a virtual slide system, the presentation of surgically resected material, and practical training at a hospital's department of pathology.
1) Common training for the introduction of research and the elective and individual guidance for research should be devised in a manner attractive to graduate students of medicine. 2) To train researchers, a graduate school of clinical medicine should be established as a professional school, separate from an ordinary graduate school. 3) To promote basic medical sciences, the capacity of graduate schools of basic medical sciences should be reduced despite the number of teachers and the bold plan for the financial support of students.
1) In accordance with core curriculums, we have proceeded with the educational reform of biochemical experiments. 2) Before experiments, the young physicians told medical students about their experiences and the relations between the laboratory exercises and medical care. 3) We also attempted to clarify the objective assessment of laboratory exercise reports, and we performed a comprehensive evaluation of laboratory exercises with tutorials and a final examination.
1) We compiled lists of accredited training hospitals for postgraduate education from the matching program list and of hospitals that employ board-certified specialists in emergency medicine.We then evaluated the number of training hospitals that employ board-certified specialists. 2) There are 1072 accredited hospitals for postgraduate education. However, only 546 (50.8%) of these hospitals employ board-certified specialists in emergency medicine. 3) Accredited training hospitals with emergency-medicine specialists are prevalent in Okinawa, Tokushima, and Kagawa prefectures.However, the prevalence of these hospitals is surprisingly low in metropolitan areas.
1) During clinical clerkships at an outpatient clinic, medical students recognized the importance of medical interviews for problem-solving and for the physician-patient relationship. 2) The clinical clerkships were well accepted by patients. 3) Students worked harmoniously as members of medical teams.