In Japan, community–based education remains uncommon in undergraduate programs for students in schools of health sciences. The purpose of this study was to examine how students are affected by their participation in off–campus classes, which are considered as a main course of community–based education at the School of Health Sciences, Gunma University. 1)Reports submitted by students after participating in off–campus classes were broken down into sentences (with care being taken that each sentence made sense). The extracted sentences were carefully consolidated by means of the Kawakita Jiro method (affinity diagram). 2)A total of 972 sentences were extracted and were categorized into 3 categories: "enjoy going out to the community," "increased activity through experiences," "awareness of what one wants to be and one's insufficient abilities." Five middle–sized categories and 10 small categories were obtained. 3)Experiences in off–campus classes are expected to increase the activity of students and to have synergic effects with on–campus classes. 4)Community–based education might be effectively included in undergraduate programs for students in schools of health sciences.
1)The Keio ACLS Popularizing and Promoting Association (KAPPA) is an official student organization that promotes advanced life support techniques. 2)KAPPA has provided 29 advanced cardiac life support courses, including 20 official ICLS (immediate cardiac life support) courses of the Japanese Association for Acute Medicine, which have trained 314 ICLS providers and 61 ICLS instructors during the past 8 years. 3)Peer–led training among students to maintain the quality of the courses has contributed to the activities of KAPPA.
Clinical reasoning is fundamental skill for medical students. However, a standard educational module for undergraduates has not been established. From the perspective of action research, we developed a teaching program using original formulas that combine symptoms and correct diseases. 1)In our experiment, fifth–year medical students were asked to learn 300 formulas during the 2–week general medicine clerkship. They learned the formulas themselves, and the resident physicians mentored them regularly. The program was evaluated with questionnaires, semistructured interviews, and participants' observations. 2)Many of the students accepted the program and could make reasonable differential diagnoses at clinical conferences. 3)The resident physicians promoted students' understanding of these formulas by explaining them with medical knowledge and their experiences. 4)Our approach was based on script theory. Extensive illness–script formation could be an important method to improve clinical reasoning.
In 2004 a program of community health and medicine was included in the national residency system. However, the contents and achievements of this program have not been adequately studied. We surveyed residents, program directors, and collaborating facilities for clinical training in community medicine in the Tohoku–Hokuriku region of Japan about the contents, practices, training period, curriculum development, and other aspects of the program. 1)We conducted a survey of 230 residents who had completed the program, 82 program managers, and 101 collaborating facilities. 2)The survey consisted of surveys of residents (survey 1), of program directors (survey 2), and of collaborating facilities (survey 3) and asked about the programs' consistency with the training objectives of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare and satisfaction with community medicine. 3)Approximately 70% of residents, program managers, and collaborating facilities believed the training period for community medicine is appropriate. 4)Furthermore, 69.1% of residents, 65.5% of program directors, and 85.2% of facilities believed that the community medicine program in the national system was important or very important. 5)Training programs should be enhanced so that residents "understand and practice health care in outlying and rural areas" and to increase active involvement of program directors.
1)For 3 years, we have asked fifth–year medical students what they consider an ideal physician to be and what they think is required to become one. 2)They considered an ideal physician to be holistic, honest, mindful, and caring. Some students also wanted to themselves be role models for other physicians and students. 3)To be an ideal physician, many students wanted to learn from role models.However, some students wanted to avoid being influenced by "bad physicians," suggesting the impact of a hidden curriculum. On the whole, students sought experiences for personal growth and for improving practical skills in communication and interviewing. Such knowledge may help in medical education.
1)In medical education in the United Kingdom, departments of general practice organize the basic training in clinical skills and specialty training in primary care. 2)A clinical clerkship in primary care is a compulsory 5–week subject, as are clerkships in internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, obstetrics/gynecology, and psychiatry. 3)As a tutorial training system has been established, general practitioners are contributing to medical education as clinical instructors.