1) We performed a questionnaire survey of educational effectiveness and student satisfaction in regards to early exposure training programs. 2) The most effective educational training programs were, in descending order, "outpatient escort practice," "nursery practice," and "ward nursing practice." The programs with the highest levels of student satisfaction were, in descending order, "nursery practice," "severely mentally disabled patients' care practice," and "experimental learning practice of wheelchair activity." Because we found a large discrepancy between educational effectiveness and student satisfaction, we searched for factors influencing student satisfaction by analyzing the comments students made about each training program. 3) Factors that significantly affected both student satisfaction and educational effectiveness were "useful experience for future medical practice," "feeling of being able to help others," and "a sense of achievement."
Physician–nurse collaboration is essential for realizing the team approach to health care. The current status of this collaboration must be examined from the viewpoints of both physicians and nurses. The present study, part of a larger study, aimed to translate the Jefferson Scale of Attitudes toward Physician–Nurse Collaboration （JSAPNC）, developed by Hojat et al. （1999）, into Japanese and to assess the attitudes of physicians and nurses toward collaboration in Japanese hospitals. 1）A self–administered questionnaire survey was distributed to 520 physicians and 2139 nurses at 4 hospitals in 4 prefectures, and valid responses were received from 51.0％ of physicians and 76.2％ of nurses. 2）Factor analysis revealed that the factorial structure of the Japanese version of the JSAPNC was different from that of the original version. The Cronbach’s alphas of the scale were 0.79 for total scores and 0.5 to 0.7 for subscales. 3）The total score on the JSAPNC was higher for nurses than for physicians. No demographic characteristics of physicians were correlated with their total scores on the JSAPNC. In contrast, nurses’ age, length of clinical experience, qualifications, position, and affiliation were correlated with their total scores on the JSAPNC. 4）The total score on the JSAPNC could be used to compare the attitudes towards collaboration of physicians and nurses between Japan and other countries. The results show that the total score on the JSAPNC of our subjects in Japan was lower than those in previous studies in other countries. Education for facilitating and evaluating collaboration is needed. 5）Further investigation of factors related to physicians’ attitude toward collaboration is required. For nurses, it is necessary to investigate factors related to their attitude in combination with organizational factors.
1)The purpose of this study was to evaluate a role–playing class for informed consent with fifth–year students playing the role of physicians and first–year students playing the role of patients. 2)The first–year students were competent as simulated patients for the informed consent role–playing and were a worthy educational human resource. 3)This role–playing was effective for helping both first–year and fifth–year students understand informed consent and the mentality of patients and to motivate students to study informed consent. This joint class also allowed fifth–year students to review their progress over time and gave first–year students a chance to meet role models.
1)Rural Physician Associate Program (RPAP) at the University of Minnesota is a 9–month rural medicine program whose primary goal is to increase the supply of rural primary care physicians. 2)Over 40% of RPAP graduates practice in non–metropolitan areas and contribute significantly to the supply of physicians in rural areas. 3)In recent years, Japanese medical schools are admitting more students with a rural background. It is important to develop systematic and comprehensive rural medicine programs for students interested in rural medicine in order to increase the supply of rural physicians.
A survey was conducted to better understand the current status of training of simulated and standardized patients (SP) in medical education and training protocol of SP training at each site, and to determine the future planning of the committee 1) Methods: A series of questions regarding the SP and SP training was sent to all 80 medical schools in Japan. 2) Results: Responses were received from 68 medical school (85%). According to the survey result, 43 medical schools (63%) trained their own SP. The total numbers of SP reported in this survey were 1,036 with ratio of male to female 1:3. The average numbers of SP at each medical school were 24 (range 5 to 87). SP training protocols were included basic training (88%) and to prepare common achievement test OSCE (84%), classes (74%) and advanced OSCE(60%). Only 6 medical school (14%) had the systematic curriculum for SP training. 3) Conclusion: To produce standardized, accurate SP training for medical education, the committee recommends to establish the standard curriculum and portrayal requirements for SP training.