Emotional intelligence and empathy are crucial in patient–physician relationships and clinical outcomes. It has been reported that both emotional intelligence and empathy decrease as students advance through medical school. This study aimed to validate Japanese versions of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire–Short Form （TEIQue–SF）, developed by Petrides and Furnham （2001）, and the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy （JSPE）, developed by Hojat et al. （2001）. 1）The TEIQue–SF and JSPE were translated and administered to 370 medical students. Valid responses were obtained from 321 students（88%）. 2）Cronbach’s alpha for internal reliability was high for both the TEIQue–SF （0.87） and the JSPE （0.89）. All item total score correlations were positive for both the TEIQue–SF （range, 0.29 to 0.64） and the JSPE （range, 0.27 to 0.72）. 3）Cronbach’s alpha was smaller if an item was deleted than if all items were included for both the TEIQue–SF （0.84–0.85） and the JSPE （0.81–0.86）. 4）Factor analysis of both the TEIQue–SF and the JSPE revealed that the Japanese versions had some structural differences from the original versions. However, criterion–related analysis showed that the TEIQue–SF and the JSPE were highly correlated with the NEO–Five Factor Inventory, a measure of the Big Five personality traits. 5）These findings provide support for the construct validity and reliability of the Japanese versions of the TEIQue–SF and the JSPE when used for medical students. Further investigation is needed.
Objectives: This study aimed to investigate what third–year students of the J University School of Medicine had learned in home care practice. Methods: We analyzed the students’ reports and focused on the description of the learning for the practice. We extracted the category of learning using qualitative content analysis. Results and Conclusion: The core categories we extracted from the analyses were: 1） characteristics of home healthcare, 2） patients, 3） families, 4） home–visiting nurses, 5） medical treatment teams, 6） frank remarks of medical students and physicians, and 7） necessities as a physician. The frank remarks of medical students and physicians included the distrust of physicians and the hopes of medical students. The students gained valuable experience from this practice. In particular, learning about the distrust of physicians and the hopes of medical students may be difficult without such practice.
Although the number of reports related to computer–education materials for nursing and learning effectiveness increases each year, there has been a conspicuous lack of reports on the influence of the effectiveness and individual characteristics of computer–education materials for nursing on the evaluation of these educational materials. This effect should be clarified to resolve future issues related to learning to use computers. 1）User IDs and passwords were randomly assigned to 57 nursing students who were asked to complete the Locus of Control （LOC） scale and Computer Anxiety Scale （CAS） before the start of e–learning and a material evaluation survey after the completion of the study. 2）Comparison of study scores before and after the start of e–learning revealed an effect after learning, but no significant difference in learning effectiveness was evident between students with an external LOC and those with an internal LOC. 3）In terms of the relationship between the LOC and the characteristics of e–learning, students with an external LOC showed significantly higher scores on “aversion/avoidance” on CAS than did those with an internal LOC. 4）Regarding the effects of the LOC and computer anxiety on material evaluation, the results of path analysis showed that the LOC had a stronger effect on material evaluation than did “anxiety/aversion” on CAS. 5）The present study has demonstrated that students who are averse to or avoid computers tend to be anxious and tense and to have a sense of nonefficacy. Therefore, educational support should be provided to students with an external LOC.
Objectives: To create a system to enhance learning by encouraging students to think for themselves and express their ideas in classrooms. This study evaluates the effects of the new utterance reward system （URS） on student attitudes and achievement. Methods: Fourth–year medical students in the 2009 Hygiene and Public Health course were informed that they would get marks for each classroom utterance that expressed their ideas. We evaluated degree of classroom engagement in the course by comparing number of utterances before and after introduction of the URS in 2008 and 2009. To assess correlations between classroom engagement and student outcomes, we examined the relationship between number of utterances and exam scores. At the end of the course, we distributed questionnaires on student perceptions of the URS. Results: The number of utterances in 2009 increased compared with that in 2008. Students who made more utterances achieved significantly higher exam marks （epidemiology, r＝0.36, public health, r＝0.40）. Current grade point average rankings （CGAR）, used as an index of general competency, was a confounding factor in the relationship between the URS and achievement. We stratified students into two groups by median CGARs. Stratified analysis of the relationship between number of utterances and exam scores showed no association within the higher–CGAR group. However, this association was significant in the lower–CGAR group in the public health class （r＝0.31, p＝0.03）. Conclusions: The URS appeared to increase student participation in the classroom and positive perceptions on participation.
Background: Some early clinical exposure programs in the community have been implemented in our medical school from years 1 to 3: community service for the handicapped in year 1, care for severely handicapped children in year 2, and health care at home with district nurses in year 3. The directors of these programs informed us, in feedback reports, of the inappropriate behavior of medical students. We then provided feedback directly to the students. We investigated the changes in student behavior after feedback during the 3 years they participated in these programs. Methods: We analyzed the feedback reports from these 3 early clinical exposure programs from 2009 to 2011. Inappropriate behavior of medical students and changes in behavior were recorded. Results: Inappropriate behaviors reported were: 1） lack of essential learning behavior, 2） lack of positive attitude and acceptance of learning in the programs, and 3） lack of communication skills. The numbers of students who received feedback about inappropriate behaviors were 26 in year 1, 11 in year 2, and 2 in year 3. Feedback to students from early clinical exposure programs may lead to changes in their behavior.
Teaching hospitals play an increasingly important role in clinical training, and improvement of the education system is required. To effectively utilize limited human and material resources for clinical education and to enhance clinical education and medicine treatment throughout a region, cooperation between hospitals is essential. However, cooperation for clinical education training beyond prefectures or training hospitals cannot be said to be sufficient. The Kisogawa Medical Conference, a collaborative system of 5 training hospitals located around the Kiso River estuary, held medical lectures, hands–on seminars, and joint–hospital case conferences. Cooperation in medical education training and exchanges beyond prefectures and training hospitals is expected to lead to substantial improvements, not only in medical education training, but also in medical care throughout a region.
Since 2003, Clinical training center of Fujita Health University hospital has been cooperated with the Office for medical education of Fujita Health University, school of medicine, in reorganizing the previous training system based mainly on individual departments. After 9 years since then, we established Yanegawara style training system and the trainee–centered curriculums. Outcomes from new system are as follows: 1. Self–establishment by problem based learning became common understandings between trainers and trainees. 2. Teaching by trainers to trainees and between trainees （R2 to R1） became common in the hospital. 3. Trainees can learn the standardized approach in diagnosis and treatment of the patients in ER. 4. Unified understanding of the training system was established in the hospital.Although new system brought several good aspects, we found a large heterogeneity in fulfillment of our curriculums not only by the capability of individual residents but also by the effort induced by each department.