Background: Although problem–based learning （PBL） tutorials have widely been used in many medical schools, they are rarely used to enhance the effectiveness of clinical clerkships. Methods: We used a questionnaire survey to evaluate the effectiveness of PBL tutorials during the clinical clerkships of 5th–year medical students. Results: Of the 91 students, 90％ answered that PBL tutorials during clinical clerkships were considerably useful, and 94％ favored using PBL tutorials during clinical clerkships. All responses to the open–ended question regarding the usefulness of PBL tutorials stated that PBL tutorials were more useful during clinical clerkships than in the 2nd to 4th years. Many students felt that PBL tutorials helped them understand the processes of clinical reasoning and decision–making. Conclusion: PBL tutorials increase the effectiveness of clinical clerkships, and, at the same time, the experiences of clinical clerkships increase the effectiveness of PBL tutorials.
Background: A workshop for training clinical clerkship staff has been held since 2009. We examined how the participants felt about the workshop. Method: The questionnaire was sent to the participants of the workshop. Result: Of the participants, 82％ thought that the workshop was helpful and that the benefits had continued for more than 2 years. Their motivation for undergraduate medical education was improved. They started to consider how medical students become members of a medical team and to think about the goals of medical practice. To promote further increases in the numbers of clinical clerkships, the participants cited the necessity of increasing the number of faculty advisors, encouraging medical students’ positive attitudes, changing attitudes about patients, extending the training period, and holding such workshops. Conclusion: The workshop was beneficial for the staff, and the beneficial effects continued long after the workshop was held.
Purpose: This is the first survey about professionalism curricula in medical schools in Japan. Methods: Persons in charge of medical education at each school were asked whether they had a formal professionalism curriculum this year or would have one next year or both. Syllabuses from these schools were analysed. Results: Of 80 medical schools, only 12 follow formal and explicit professionalism curricula. Curricula were implemented as a component of multiple courses （9 schools）, a single course （2 schools）, and an integrated sequence of courses （2 schools）. Most curricula were implemented in the preclinical years; only 1 was implemented in the 5th year （clinical） of the 6–year medical school course. Several teaching methods, such as lectures, workshops, interprofessional exercises, and ceremonies, were used. Students were assessed through reports, participation in discussions, rating scales, and portfolios. Conclusions: Providing an explicit professionalism curriculum is important for promoting the professional development of medical students. This study revealed that only 15％ of medical schools in Japan followed an explicit professionalism curriculum. In addition, many of these curricula were implemented in the preclinical years and lacked a means of assessing students. The numbers of schools with professionalism curricula and of curricula in the clinical years are expected to increase.