Introduction: We examined whether an intervention in students’ self-assessment causes behavioral changes in how they make their assessments. Method: Students taking part in problem-based learning were divided into 2 groups. The students of Group 1 were asked to evaluate themselves with a four-step process, whereas the students of Group 2 students were asked to evaluated themselves and to indicate how confident they were that their self-assessments were consistent with assessments by their instructors. Results: We observed a significant difference in self-assessment patterns between the groups. Students in Group 1 overestimated their abilities, whereas students in Group 2 underestimated their abilities. However, when we compared students’ self-evaluations and their grades in lecture courses, we found that students with low grades were more likely to overestimate their ability than were students with high grades, regardless of whether they had stated how confident they were in their assessments. Discussion: By considering their degree of confidence that their self-assessments agreed with assessments by their instructors, students might show more careful assessment behavior. However, students with low grades require a greater degree of individual guidance before exhibiting behavioral changes.
Introduction: Physical assessment training is included in many 6-year training programs for pharmacists. Method: To clarify the effects of this training for developing the professional abilities of pharmacists and for increasing the students’ motivation for learning, we investigated changes in students’ attitudes before and after physical assessment training by means of a questionnaire, whose free descriptions were evaluated with a text-mining approach. Results: After training, the percentage of students who believed they needed to acquire the knowledge and skills of physical assessment increased significantly. Furthermore, the motivation for learning increased. Discussion: We believe that physical assessment training makes students aware of the importance of the contribution of physical assessment to drug therapy and increases students’ motivation for learning.
We present an overview of effective teaching and meaningful learning. When selecting teaching methods or learning methods, medical educators must understand the integrity of such methodology with an educational taxonomy or idealized images of future physicians as learners. Adult learning theory, self-directed learning, metacognition, reflective practitioners, and collaborative learning are the key concept for understanding outcomes to achieve when physicians are learners. Cultural differences as well as flexiblity in learning beliefs must be taken into account when applying educational theories from Western countries. Whereas there is no single optimal learning strategy, an elaborate combination of lectures, small-group discussions, and one-to-one instruction enables medical educators to teach learners effectively. Adult learners generally prefer to use various learning methods and to learn in an appropriate safe learning environment.
1）We examined 111 cases of incidents and accidents involving medical residents which were identified in a search of the database of the Japan Council for Quality Health Care. 2）In each case we deduced the root causes, which were then classified into 8 categories. 3）To develop strategies to prevent such cases from recurring, we believe that it is essential to develop a variety of training facility systems and to establish collaborative multidisciplinary medical treatment teams. Our results also suggest that consistent undergraduate and postgraduate programs for medical safety education are necessary.
To the best of our knowledge, there are few reports on acquirement of medical skills of infection control using a scenario simulation program. We report the development of a education program using scenario-based simulation named Infection Control Training Course （ICTC）. The three main aims of this course are basic comprehension of standard precautions and contact precautions, acquirement of skills for wearing and removal of personal protective equipment （PPE）, and precise selection of PPE for various situations. ・For the materials and methods, 225 medical staff members taking part in the ICTC at TMU participated in the study. Investigations using a questionnaire about standard precaution, contact precaution and PPE selection were carried out for the pre-course and post-course of the day. In addition, the satisfaction level was evaluated using free score text. ・The return rates of the completed questionnaire for investigating these areas were 88.4% （pre-course） and 95.1% （post-course）. Among all the items investigated, improvements were verified statistically （Wilcoxon signed-rank test）. The satisfaction level was 94.7 ± 9.4 points. ・In conclusion, the ICTC was considered to be effective for acquiring medical skills of infection control, particularly basic comprehension regarding standard precaution, contact precaution and precise PPE selection using a scenario simulation program.