As medical safety attracts attention, it has become increasingly important to ensure the quality of medical education, and more emphasis has been placed on educational outcomes. An ideal form of training, in which medical students undergo medical education and then transfer to residency training seamlessly, can be conducted by setting general competencies required for all physicians as educational outcomes, as well as setting milestones in the process. Accomplishing competencies is the pillar of outcome-based education, and the assessment of students' achievements is important.
The multilateral assessments of their competencies should be conducted, including written examinations, performance tests, observational assessments, and portfolios. In the existing national examination for medical practitioners, no such multilateral assessments are conducted. To promote seamless transition from under- to post-graduate education, it is important for the Faculty of Medicine and medical colleges to appropriately assess students' educational milestones as a condition of awarding them with degrees, in addition to the setting general competencies and such milestones.
It has been suggested that bed-side learning in Japanese medical schools may be not sufficient in its term and content, compared to that in European and American medical schools, although medical knowledge of Japanese medical students is on a par with that of European and American medical students. AJMC (Association of Japanese Medical Colleges) is now trying to certify medical students as Student Doctors based on a uniform standard with the use of CBT and OSCE. The quality assurance of medical students before proceeding to bed-side learning can make satisfying participation in such training possible with the understanding of patients. The National Medical Practitioner Examination poses a considerable burden to medical students because of a large number of problems. It is desirable for the National Medical Practitioner Examination to become a test to evaluate students' ability on bed-side practice in the future. If post-clinical clerkship OSCE is conducted in all medical schools in Japan with fairness and objectivity, the burden on medical students due to the National Medical Practitioner Examination may be alleviated.
The author is involved in the management of Objective Structure Clinical Examination (OSCE) for Common Achievement Tests to be implemented prior to a clinical clerkship. In this study, we discuss how to develop questions for students who will receive OSCE after a clinical clerkship, as well as potential challenges in the introduction and management of its examination system. Finally, we consider the short-term future of clinical education, given the actual situation where a specialty-specific accreditation system has been introduced according to global standards, and medical education focused on medical professionalism is being offered.
The purpose of the present study was to develop a scale to assess how senior nurses establish relationships desired by new graduate nurses. Items were developed on the basis of previous studies. The scale was then completed by senior nurses (N=844) . Factor analysis yielded the following 4 factors: behavior to receive new graduate nurses, creating relationship and the atmosphere, controlling feelings, and appreciation. A number of senior nurses could perform these behaviors. The influence of experience as a preceptor and training for preceptorship differed by factor of the scale. There was no correlation between a senior nurse's age and any factor. These results suggest that the reason why senior nurses can establish relationships desired by new graduate nurses involves the behaviors they can perform regardless of their attributes.
Objective: Teachers of various departments are in charge of medical interview training classes with the participation of simulated patients. However, it is not clear whether there are differences in feedback (FB) among teachers. The objective was to examine differences in FB among teachers, investigate effective FB methods, and evaluate the effect of an FB manual.
Methods: We conducted a questionnaire survey of students to assess their evaluation of FB by teachers. In the meantime, we transcribed and analyzed teachers' FB on the basis of video recordings. We created a teacher's manual for FB on the basis of these results. We conducted a similar survey the following year.
Results: The evaluations from students included many positive opinions, such as "we heard from the teachers about their clinical experiences" . Analysis of the videos showed significant differences in the contents of FB among groups. The performance of the interview strongly influenced the content of the FB. Variations in each group tended to be reduced the following year.
Conclusions: 1) There were significant differences in FB among teachers. 2) FB that includes the clinical experiences of the teacher and discussion among students may enhance the learning effect. 3) Introduction of the manual increased the relevance of FB.
Background: Few medical education programs provide hands-on classes using electronic medical charts for a large number of students.
Methods: To simulate a medical interview, third- and sixth-year medical students viewed electronic medical chart samples on a screen, created by FileMaker, and discussed patient management. Following this, they underwent a questionnaire survey.
Results: A total of 63.1 and 76.3% of the third- and sixth-year students responded to the questionnaire, and 87.1 and 78.9% of the responders became interested in the class, respectively, because it focused on hands-on, practical training. A total of 5.6% of third-year students stated that the class was difficult to master but they hoped to continue learning.
Discussion: The adoption of a hands-on class using electronic medical charts interested even junior medical students.
To effectively educate medical teachers for clerkship and residency training, the international faculty development program was developed. Ten faculties of the School of Medicine participated in the program and learned about clinical education through lectures and direct observations, transforming their educational perspectives. Factors to optimize such an international faculty development program were discussed: 1) Authentic educational institution and environment, 2) matching the participants' specialty and subject at the observation site, 3) optimal combination of lectures, direct observations, and debriefing sessions, 4) mutual understanding of cultural differences, and 5) sense of community cultivated by experiencing the program for a week. Those factors suggest ways for further improvement to reform the program, promote better management, and conduct educational research on faculty development.
Introduction: No formal curriculum has been formulated for teaching behavioral science to undergraduate medical students in Japan.
Method: We conducted a survey using the Delphi method to investigate the required competency in behavioral science for graduates in medicine. Then, we developed an outcome-oriented curriculum for teaching behavioral science.
Results: We propose an educational module of behavioral science consisting of 15 sessions of 90-minute lectures, small group discussions, and practice.
Discussion: We recommend including not only lectures but also practices according to problem-based learning as well as team-based learning in the curriculum to achieve the target outcome.
The WHO reported the importance of IPE (Interprofessional Education) in order to implement team-based medicine smoothly. Some Japanese medical educational institutes presented their IPE programs, which involved real patients, but most IPE programs used scenario-based or standardized patients. Moreover, few reports showed IPE programs for diabetic patient education. We created a new program, called the "Diabetes education class IPE" . Participants were 2 medical, 4 nursing, 4 pharmacy, and 3 dietician students. The students experienced the planning and management of and reflection on diabetes education classes. As a result of reflection, the "Diabetes education class IPE" was viewed as a useful IPE program.