Recently, performance appraisal became necessary for faculty members. According to the questionnaire survey by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, the number of questionnaire items on education is on the increase, and performance appraisal is widely used for decisions on allowance and employment. In our college, performance appraisal on education, research, and medical care is used to decide on the size of bonuses. Performance appraisal for faculty members has already come into force in many universities. However, services in medical schools include many different aspects, and precise quantification of performance appraisal is very difficult. Now, exact evaluation methods and appropriate utilization are necessary for performance appraisal for faculty members.
Recently, the roles of educators in clinical medicine have increased and diversified, such as lecturers, preceptors in clinical settings, tutors or small-group leaders or facilitators, and educational administrators. In such a situation, clinical faculties are fulfilling their missions as clinical educators, researchers, and clinicians through systematically sharing educational duties with other faculties. A system to evaluate educational achievements is needed that corresponds to the various affairs of faculties and complicated implementation system in clinical medical education. In addition, novel methods that can be used to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate educational achievements should be established as well as achievements of research and medical care.
Objective: To inquire about how evaluation of physician supervisors is performed, and whether or not incentives to guide comprehensive community-based clinical clerkship for them are provided, in hospitals outside Sapporo Medical University.
Methods: We conducted field surveys using questionnaires distributed to physician supervisors and hospital directors, focusing on the evaluation of physician supervisors and whether they are provided with incentives. From the survey, we examined the attitude toward educational awareness of the physician supervisors.
Results: The number of hospitals where evaluations for physician supervisors were performed and incentives were provided was limited. In addition, 54.2% of the physician supervisors responded that incentives were unnecessary. Many of them considered that incentives for a hospital are more preferable than for individual supervisors.
Conclusion: These results suggest that with respect to community-based clinical clerkship outside the university, an appropriate method for providing incentives, including whether or not they are necessary, should be considered.
Introduction: Compared with faculties in clinical and medical research departments, those in medical departments are not appropriately evaluated in terms of their contributions to or achievements in medical education. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate the contributions of medical department faculties to medical education, and to examine differences in contributions according to duty positions and specialties.
Methods: Five-grade self-assessments in relation to 20 items on a rating form for performance in medical education, which was developed by the Japan Society for Medical Education's Committee for Performance Evaluation, were carried out by medical department faculties in Japanese universities. The data were then totalized and analyzed.
Results and Discussion: Although faculties belonging to departments other than medical education units did not actively participate in examinations or the education system, they still made contributions to lectures and practice. In addition, faculties with positions with more duties tended to show greater participation in the education system.
Conclusion: Based on these findings, we recommend the use of a rating form as a standard scale to evaluate performance in medical education.
In December 2008, the Central Council for Education submitted a report entitled: "Towards the enhancement of undergraduate education." In this report, the "Teaching Portfolio" appeared as a versatile aid to evaluate teaching. Since then, the number of teaching staff who write their teaching portfolio has been increasing annually in Japan, and it has gained recognition as an effective instrument for improving and visualizing teaching performance. However, there is very little emphasis on teaching evaluation using teaching portfolios. This paper introduces the teaching portfolio and describes how it aids teaching evaluation.
Accreditation for medical education has been introduced in several countries to ensure and improve the quality of education programs in medical schools. In the standards for accreditation, the assessment of faculty activity and development is described as important to improve medical education. The balance of teaching, research, and service functions is considered in the assessment. The results of the appraisal are reflected in the faculty's appointments, promotions, and compensation increases in many countries.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the influences of experiences of postgraduate education on senior nurses' consciousness. Senior nurses (N=844) completed a questionnaire developed on the basis of previous studies. Factor analysis yielded the following 3 factors: affirmative consciousness of new graduate nurses, negative consciousness of new graduate nurses and affirmative consciousness of postgraduate education. There results suggest that experience as a preceptor and training for preceptorship influenced not only the affirmative consciousness of new graduate nurses and postgraduate education but also negative consciousness of new graduate nurses. It was suggested that it is necessary to investigate problems in the current postgraduate education.
Introduction: In Japan, the number of female physicians is increasing rapidly. The importance of education focused on career development and the work-life balance is increasingly being recognized.
Methods: In February 2008, we sent a questionnaire regarding the working status and life events to 1,374 female physicians who graduated from Okayama University Medical School or who were working at university-affiliated hospitals and facilities at the time of the investigation.
Results: Of the 376 respondents (26.8% response rate), we analyzed 360 respondents whose specialty is clinical medicine. Among them, 75.9% (n=269) of female physicians have partners, 70.2% (n=233) have children, and most of the female physicians experience these life events from age of 25-29 years. Although 82.1% (n=216) regarded the timing of their marriage as appropriate, 65.2% (n=144) regarded it as appropriate about having first child. Of the 174 respondents who returned to clinical work, 32.2% (n=56) returned to the same position as a full-time worker, and 27.6% (n=48) changed their position from full-time to part-time. Important factors to return to work easily, 〈understanding from their supervisors〉, 〈support from their family〉, and an appropriate amount of work were the top three reasons.
Discussion: It is important to educate medical students about career development based on the life stage and work-life balance for gender equality in medicine.
Cooperative, active learning such as Problem-Based Learning, or PBL, and Team-Based Learning, or TBL, is gaining popularity in medical education in Asian countries. Cambodia has been exposed to few, if any, such educational methodologies. Here, the author conducted a week of Hybrid Educational Activities between TBL And PBL Program (HEAT APP) with Cambodian medical students and postgraduate trainees. Further practices and studies will clarify the real value in this specific setting.
Background: The center for international relations was established in 2007 and it has organized a program for accepting international students for short periods since 2009 to enhance internationalization at the medical school.
Methods: The number of inbound and outbound students, and the number of overseas medical schools with an Academic Agreement and a Memorandum of Understanding with our institution from 2008 to 2013 were counted, and the relevant achievements were evaluated.
Results: The number of inbound students increased from 0 in 2008 to 14 in 2013, and the number of outbound students also increased from 1 in 2008 to 12 in 2013. The number of overseas medical schools with an Academic Agreement and a Memorandum of Understanding also increased from 1 to 3. The number of scholarship applications to go overseas also increased from 2 to 12.
Discussion: Organizing a well-established program for inbound students probably contributed to developing the international environment within the school for both inbound and outbound students, and to enhancing discussion of student exchange with potential partner universities. The center for international relations has functioned as a hub for the students and relevant departments by centralizing information, which has markedly communication improved.