Introduction: Due to the advancement of the home-based healthcare, increasing the number of professionals who are able to administer homebased treatments, such as endotracheal suctioning, is an urgent issue.Methods: By measuring the ocular movement of nurses, nursing students and previous researches, an endotracheal suctioning ontology was visualized. It included a multiplex task structure, recognition, and judgment, as well as identifying procedures used during endotracheal suctioning that could contribute to a discussion on educational feasibility.Results: From the hierarchical structure of the constructed endotracheal suctioning ontology, not only the procedural knowledge but also knowledge about medical devices, knowing what options exist when endotracheal suctioning is ineffective, and a wide range of other expertise is needed to perform endotracheal suctioning safely.Discussion: An endotracheal suctioning ontology was created from the ocular movement of nurses. Ontologies are a potential tool for defining minimum requirements and the scope of ability that must be evaluated before clinical practicum.
Purpose: To consider the relationship between undergraduate tests and the national examinations administered to undergraduate students, predict the outcome of national examinations, and determine the cutoff value for passing national examinations.Methods: We studied students who graduated in March 2016 from five rehabilitation colleges for physiotherapists and occupational therapists. We investigated the national examination results of physical therapists and occupational therapists, undergraduate tests such as admission tests, first year student final exams, second year student final exams, and three tests administered to third year students. Statistical analysis, Pearson's Correlation coefficient, and logistic regression analysis were used. The cutoff value was determined by recipient operation characteristic curve.Results: Each performance test and national examination showed a significant positive correlation with the Department of Physical Therapy (305, pass rate 83.6%), Department of Occupational Therapy (89, pass rate 100%) and the predictive examination for the Department of Physical Therapy. The first and third simulation tests were extracted (p<0.05), each cutoff value was 130.5 points and 169.5 points respective.Conclusion: We established a relationship between undergraduate tests and national examinations. We also clarified the predictive test for the physical therapist national examination and its cutoff value.
Under the current postgraduate clinical training system for physicians, three principles have been emphasized in its basic tenets; cultivation of character appropriate for physicians, generation of awareness to the societal role of medical science and healthcare, and mastery of basic clinical skills needed to respond appropriately to injuries and illnesses frequently encountered in general practice. In accordance with its quinquennial review rule, the Clinical Training Committee under the Medical Caucus of the Healthcare Professions Council released draft revisions of a notification published by the Director general of the Health Policy Bureau of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare in March, 2018. The document is entitled "On the operation of the ordinance concerning the postgraduate clinical training prescribed in the paragraph (1) of Article 16-2, Medical Practitioners Act" . A Key distinction of the revised draft is new learning outcomes featuring core values shared by physicians: commitment to physicians' societal mission of public health, altruistic behavior, respect for humanity, and maintaining one's own integrity. Another key distinction is securement of longitudinal consistency in the set of required faculties, from medical school curriculum to continuing professional development programs. Further improvements in systems and environments to enhance devotion to life-long learning are needed.
An oral examination using a simulated case conference format was conducted for fourth year medical students who took a practical course on clinical reasoning prior to their clinical clerkship. Although there were many disadvantages such as fewer cases and shorter testing time to use such examinations for summative purposes, we found that we could assess students' knowledge and presentation skills based on their logical reasoning. We could also comprehensively evaluate students' readiness for clerkship by applying the RIME assessment framework. We discovered the practical value of using the examination as a means of supporting learners who are facing difficulty in learning after we successfully used it to detect such learners and address their concerns. We hope that some elements of this simulated case conference can be used not only as a job preview but also as an assessment tool for pre-clinical clerkship education in other medical schools.