Because the corona disaster made group medical training difficult, we conducted resuscitation training for new students and basic medical skills training for fourth-year students without face-to-face instruction using video learning, assessment, and ICT. In the resuscitation training, the students were allowed to take a mannequin home and film themselves performing the resuscitation while learning by video. Later, group and peer assessment were conducted via Zoom, and a significant increase in self-assessment was observed. In the basic medical skills training, the students filmed their own implementation at their own pace while learning by video, and the teachers later conducted video assessment and feedback. The lack of face-to-face instruction made it possible to implement the limb spine training, which had not been possible in previous years. It is necessary to adjust the timing of the video registration by the students and the video assessment by the teachers, and to make further improvements to the system.
Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, some hospitals conducted online interviews. Reports on applicants’ and interviewers’ perceived differences between online and in-person interviews for the recruitment of junior residents are relatively lacking in Japan. Methods: We administered a questionnaire to all applicants and interviewers participated in the 2020 residency recruitment interview held in our hospital. Results: 70 of 96 applicants (72.9%) and all of 24 interviewers responded. Forty one of 70 applicants (58.6%) felt they were able to show their ability in online interviews as well as in-person interviews. Thirty seven of 70 (52.9%) and 40 of 70 (57.1%) applicants felt they could convey passion and personality better during in-person interviews, respectively. Twenty of 24 (83.3%) and 13 of 24 (54.2%) interviewers felt applicants could show their ability and convey their passion in online interviews as well as in-person. Thirteen of 24 (54.2%) interviewers felt applicants could convey their personality in in-person interviews better. Seventeen of 70 (24.3%) applicants would choose in-person interviews if given the next chance for interviews. Thirty nine of 70 (55.7%) applicants would like to choose in-person interviews though they could accept online interviews. Ten of 24 (41.7%) interviewers thought only in-person interviews should be performed next year. Nine of 24 (37.5%) interviewers thought both in-person and online interviews should be performed next year. Conclusion: If the COVID-19 pandemic persists, online interviews can be considered as an option though the results indicate that in-person interviews are preferable.
This article aims to study a novel course on Human communication at Tottori University. As the COVID-19 crisis increased in 2020, face-to-face classes and the off-campus practical training had to be cancelled. Those classes were reconstructed by using ICT with volunteer students. The new themes were “searching for no correct answering for questions” and “connecting between the students” . Before every class, the teacher and volunteer students held discussions on how to use ICT tools for future classes. The use of ICT in a novel communication class was useful for 1) connecting students, 2) providing the place to have relationships through team-taskings, 3) having interactive class using the chat function. Feedback and cooperation from students were important for these realizations.
At Saitama Medical University, elementary and junior high school experiential training was conducted to give students experience with health promotion, health guidance, and communication with different generations. In the 2020 FY, each small group was in charge of different grades and themes. They created a 10-minute health guidance video remotely. By doing the video project remotely, students could take time to do group work and deepen their understanding of the theme and children of the target grade. It also became easier to teach students how to use the PC tools needed for the task. The students learned not only the knowledge necessary for health guidance, but also how to concretely assess the target person and convey information as consciously as possible. It is important to nurture within students an attitude of seriously engaging in the training despite not physically going to school. For this reason, communication with the school is important.
At Saitama Medical University, experience training for first-year medical students was conducted for the purpose of communicating with people who live in an institution and have severe motor and intellectual disabilities. However, due to the spread of COVID-19, training at this institution has been suspended completely, which has led us to conduct the training remotely. In the remote training sessions, people with disabilities who only had nonverbal communication tools joined a Zoom meeting where they were able to communicate with students from inside the institution. In the past, there have been other times when training was suspended due to infectious disease outbreaks. Despite this, remote training has made it possible to carry out training without being affected by the environment. Compared to conventional training, remote training did not allow students to experience the atmosphere of the institution or interaction with the people on-site. However, it did have other advantages in that it enabled students to understand the disabilities at a deep level, making them realize the importance of nonverbal communication, and increasing their motivation to learn.
Students in all years, including those in lower years, were prohibited from coming to campus because of COVID-19, which began to spread in January 2020. However, we believed that a hospital tour and observership would be important practical training for first and second year medical students as part of the early exposure program, which aims to increase student motivation. Thus, we decided to conduct a virtual hospital tour and a virtual observation of medical doctors’ work. We used Zoom to conduct a virtual hospital tour for first-year students in June, and a virtual observation of physicians’ work for second-year students in December. Although this offered less of an opportunity to experience the reality of the clinic, there have been benefits in terms of increased learning content, fairness of learning opportunities delivered, and the promotion of independent learning. With regard to a “Hospital Tour” and the “Observation of Medical Doctors’ Work” , we believe that hybrid forms, which are able to skillfully combine the strengths of the two methods, would be effective.
At Saitama Medical University, practical training in pharmaceutical service and rehabilitation services is conducted. Due to the spread of COVID-19 infection in 2020, it was difficult for third-year medical students to practice in the actual medical field. For this reason, students have been provided a remote practical training in pharmaceutical service and rehabilitation services, such as watching videos of working situations and interviews for pharmacist, physical therapist, occupational therapist and speech therapist, group works using Zoom, and exchanging questions and answers with those professions. Although student’s levels of readiness were diverse, they could learn more deeply about the roles and perspectives they had not learned previously, compared to conventional practical training. In addition to this effect, the program provided more opportunities for students to deepen their learning. Therefore, in the future, we would like to consider implementing a training program that provides both virtual and onsite experiences.
In career education, devising ways to elicit proactive participation is vital, thus we conducted face-to-face workshops to drive learners’ participation. However, the COVID-19 pandemic forced us to teach classes online. Therefore, to motivate more than 100 students to participate actively in the online format, we conducted career education using Active Book Dialogue® where several students read a book together in a short period of time. Each student read a specific part of the book they were assigned and summarized it in collaboration with their group members. This enabled them to learn career theory. Additionally, the online format allowed several lectures to be held within a remote and interactive environment. We will reflect on this experience and report on how this can be applied in other schools.
During the coronavirus pandemic, we focused on Hypothesis-Driven Physical Examination (HDPE), which is performed while considering physical examination and differential diagnosis as issues that can be learned without directly having contact with patients. We created HDPE scenarios with students who elected general medicine in Clinical Clerkship 2, and we implemented HDPE using that scenario on the last day of the clerkship. The scenario was created online and HDPE was conducted face-to-face. Students could learn correct medical examination techniques and manners through mutual learning. In addition, they could acquire communication and lifelong learning abilities through cooperative learning. We were able to enhance the learning effect through mutual learning that works on the students’ own intrinsic motivation in terms of both creating scenarios for the framework of cognitive apprenticeship and implementing HDPE.
In order to conduct online clinical practice under the COVID-19 pandemic, we attempted to introduce behavioral medicine education in obstetrics and gynecology clinical practice. Forty fifth-year medical students were given Case Based Learning using scenarios in a two-week rotational clinical practice. The scenarios were obstetrics and gynecology cases based on the themes from the “Behavioral Medicine” textbook. The curriculum consisted of discussions during practical training using Zoom and independent study outside of the training time. After the practical training, we received comments from students suggesting there was a change in their awareness, such as “Behavioral medicine was previously classroom knowledge, but now I am able to be aware of it in subsequent practical training.”
We developed an education system utilizing virtual reality/augmented reality (VR/AR) technologies for clinical clerkships in emergency medicine. We used a spherical camera to record the scenes of emergency medical treatment, and then added subtitles/captions of clinical information onto the video data to help the learners’ understanding. Before watching the video, learners prepared with basic knowledge for the clinical situations to be addressed. By monitoring line of sight, instructors were able to estimate how far the students understood the situations and give appropriate feedback on the spot. These results suggest that an application of VR/AR technologies combined with preparatory learning materials and measurement of learners’ understanding in watching video provides an interactive and participatory educational context for knowledge acquisition in clinical clerkships. This system can be introduced at low cost and also can grow as a platform shared between teaching facilities.
A simulated defibrillator using an iPad application was introduced for simulation education of endogenous diseases in paramedic training education. As a result, the reality of the scenario was increased, and a living body could play the role of the injured person, enabling simulation education in a different format than before. The use of a simulated defibrillator in EMT training can be a useful tool to motivate students and improve educational effectiveness.
The faculty development for clinical supervisor teaching residents (FD) was held for two nights on site in Japan. However, corona pandemic made it difficult to conduct the FD on site, thus we conducted it completely online. To avoid participants’ burden of long hours of synchronous online learning, we adopted a flipped classroom in which assignments in asynchronous online learning was used in discussion in synchronous learning. Assignments were issued sequentially five weeks prior to the synchronous session, and the synchronous session was held from 5:00 p.m. on Friday, November 13, 2020 to Saturday, November 14, 2020 for 45 participants. All participants completed the course by submitting all the assignments. The online flipped classroom utilizing assignments has a potential to significantly reduce the time constraints on busy clinicians.
Telemedicine has seen rapid development all over the world due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Compared to other developed countries, the adoption of telemedicine has been sluggish in Japan. Most of the developed countries are focusing on the development of telemedicine as a national policy, which is why telemedicine is developing. Although telemedicine has been available in Japan for some time, it was only an adjunct to face-to-face treatment. However, due to the spread of COVID-19, the introduction of telemedicine is rapidly gaining momentum as regulations have been significantly eased to allow for initial consultations and new prescriptions other than those for on-demand use. This article compares the background and current status of telemedicine in Japan and other countries where telemedicine is making progress, and outlines the future prospects of telemedicine.