This paper briefly introduces 3D printing technology for medical applications. 3D printing technology is obtaining a lot of attentions from various fields including rapid prototyping and manufacturing, home use and medical applications. Medical applications of 3D printing are including:（a）diagnostic aid,（b）surgical aid,（c）medical education,（d）medical training, and（e）re-generative medicine. In this short summary, we will briefly explain the various mechanism of 3D printing and several printing techniques for reproducing organ models by 3D printing techniques. Also the recent topics in international conferences are introduced here.
Technical innovation in radiation therapy symbolized by stereotactic irradiation, intensity-modulated radiation therapy, image-guided radiation therapy, particle beam therapy, and image-guide brachytherapy using remote controll after loading system made it possible to deliver ideally distributed radiation dose to the target with great accuracy, while sparing the adjacent organs at risk. The high tumor control ability led by new technology changed radiation therapy into effective and minimally invasive cancer therapy. What we should mention specially for radiation therapy is to have become excellent alternative to surgery for various types of cancer. In locally advanced stage of cancer, randomized controlled trials established the chemoradiation therapy as a standard treatment option for patients with head and neck cancer, lung cancer, esophageal cancer, and gynecological cancer. Radiation therapy has also important role in palliative care and oncologenic emergencies with consistently high response rates. Minimally invasive therapy will come to be emphasized its needs in the background of increased tendency of elderly patients with cancer, and it shows us where the radiation therapy stands and has to go toward. However, much more radiation therapy professions than the present Japanese situation are indispensable to fully demonstrate ability inherent in highly-sophisticated radiation therapy technology. Establishment of an education system for radiation oncologist, radiation therapy technologist, medical physicists, and radiation therapy nurses is our current most important issue.