As the first step to constructing a new method for a series analysis of the traditional milk processing system, “milk processing elements” were proposed in this paper. A milk processing element was defined as a goal-oriented technique used by human beings in milk processing, such as “churning” which is a procedure intended to extract butter by stirring the milk. The conception of this milk processing element is totally different from the milk processing which is used to explain the process in modern milk factory. Twenty-seven milk processing elements have been identified. The meaning of each element has been clarified using data from 33 papers which adequately report milk processing conducted by local livestock holders in each case over Eurasia and Africa. Human beings have been milking livestock for thousands of years and have developed various techniques for milk processing. The milk processing elements can fully describe those accumulated human beings' techniques upon milk.
The present paper reports analyses of milk from a Stineger's beaked whale (Mesoplodon stejnegeri) which was stranded at Noto-machi, Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan on 29 April, 2002. Fifty milliliters of milk were taken about 15 hours after death by incising the mammary glands. Milk consists protein; 11.7%, fat; 35.1%, carbohydrate; 0.8%, and ash; 0.8%. Contents of protein and fat are greater than those reported for a beaked whale which was stranded at Ninilchik, Alaska on 21 October, 1980 (the literature 7 cited). As minerals, sodium, potassium, calcium, iron, magnesium and zinc were analyzed. Calcium content was 65 mg/100 g of milk, which was extremely less than reported for the above whale. Fatty acids composition was characterized by high content of oleic, palmitic, palmitoleic and myristic acids in order. Especially, content of oleic acid is the highest, which is about 50 % of all fatty acids detected.